代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

The Problems Of Porn And Child Porn

2021-04-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇关于The Problems Of Porn And Child Porn的代写范文,供大家参考学习。

 

摘要:一般来说,色情作品多为图形化或讲故事,其表现形式是戏剧和艺术作品。另一方面,它是一种巨大而可怕的社会罪行,它贬低和减少了我们的人性,同时迫使我们面对社会禁忌。

 

The Problems Of Porn And Child Porn

 

The word 'Pornography' elicits a myriad of responses more numerous than the potential varieties of the product itself: some disgust; some nervous humor; some genuine interest. However, add the word 'Child-', and suddenly the variety of responses is glaringly stark and unilaterally negative. The addition of that one word brings with it an extreme difference in not only context, but rigidity of definition, and volumes of legislation. While 'Pornography' represents the ultimate gray area of debate in our country, the ethical and moral response to 'Child-Pornography' is purely black and white. Yet many detractors of the former enthusiastically equate it to the latter. In this paper, I will explore the very different nature of the two in both rhetoric and reality.

 

The Moral Ambiguity of Pornography

 

Indefinite definitions: Pornography vs. Obscenity, a brief history

The word 'Pornography' comes from the ancient Greek words 'porne' (whore) and 'graphien' (write), which mean 'writings by/or about whores'.

 

The first text to be termed 'obscene' is The Raggionamenti by Pietro Aretino (1492-1556), a Renaissance Humanist. Contains both bawdy dialogue between to whores and biting satire of Renaissance church and state. Volumes deemed 'obscene' which followed Aretino's were labeled as such not only due to sexual content, but also because they included anti-clericalism, religious skepticism, and political satire.

 

In the 18th century, the Marquis de Sade wrote a series of novels which were also not only sexually explicit, but also rejected all moral, religious, and political rules, values and norms.

 

While the tone and content of 'pornography' and other 'obscene' materials changed in the early 19th century from that of social rebellion to focus purely on sexual fantasy, the primary audience for it continued to be the wealthy aristocracy, as it had always been.

 

Up to the mid nineteenth century, only the wealthiest had the funds to commission such works, and as well as being the only ones with the education to read them. The commissioning and collection of pornography of the time was just another pass time of the rich, like collecting art or wine. Some texts were even encased at the British Museum and the Biblioteque Nationale.

 

Over the course of the 19th century, national education led to rising literacy rates, and the potential for the masses to gain access to the plaything of the elite pushed the European and American aristocracies and governments to enact the first anti-obscenity laws, directed at materials cheap enough to reach 'persons of all classes, young and old'. Private individuals and anti-obscenity leagues began to rail against the 'evils of smut'.

 

In 1964, Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, in the decision on Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, succeeded in defining ambiguity where he failed to define pornography any better than 'I know it when I see it.'.

 

The first complete legal definition of obscenity in the US appears courtesy of the Supreme Court in the decision of Miller v. California, (413 U.S. 15, 24, 1973). This definition sets the following three standards (direct quote): 1) whether 'the average person, applying contemporary community standards' would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest; 2) whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law; and 3) whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. This definition (dubbed 'The Miller Test') would later be refuted by Kathleen Sullivan, dean of Stanford Law School, in the Sept. '92 issue of The New Republic: 'The first two parts of [the Miller test] are incoherent: to put it crudely, they require the audience to be turned on and grossed out at the same time.'

 

Arguments For and Against

 

In his article in the March, 2010 issue of 'The Scientist', Professor Milton Diamond reviews the collected studies of the correlations between the viewing of pornography and sexual attitudes. He states, 'in every region investigated, researchers have found that as pornography has increased in availability, sex crimes have either decreased or not increased. [. . .] Despite the widespread and increasing availability of sexually explicit materials, according to national FBI Department of Justice statistics, the incidence of rape declined markedly from 1975 to 1995.' Milton also reveals a number of conclusions evident in these studies which defy popular belief: '[the studies] found that rapists were more likely than non-rapists in the prison population to have been punished for looking at pornography while a youngster, while other research has shown that incarcerated non-rapists had seen more pornography, and seen it at an earlier age, than rapists. [a€|] Studies of men who had seen X-rated movies found that they were significantly more tolerant and accepting of women than those men who didn't see those movies.' Milton also finds that, while 'No correlation has even been found between exposure to porn and calloused attitudes toward women,' they have found that 'what does correlate highly with sex offense is a strict, repressive religious upbringing'. Milton concludes stating, 'Significantly, no community in the United States has ever voted to ban adult access to sexually explicit material. The only feature of a community standard that holds is intolerance for materials in which minors are involved as participants or consumers.' In other words, while no group can agree on the exact standard by which to measure the good or evil of any other form of pornography, 'child-porn' is universally recognized as an absolute evil.

 

The 3/9/10 issue of Post-Bulletin reported that the state senate was reviewing a bill which would change travel policy for state employees and elected officials, limiting them from staying at hotels which offer certain types of pornography. It does not limit all pornography, only expressly that which 'eroticizes domination, degradation or violence' according to Senate File 2861. When the Olmsted County Commissioners were asked last summer to approve a similar prohibition, but never returned a vote.

 

Women's rights: Against

 

In her 1979 book Pornography: Men Possessing Women, Andrea Dworkin interprets pornography as 'training guides for committing sexual violence.' While this causal link rests on anecdotal evidence, Dworkin further contends that women reporting an experience of being sexually assaulted are not believed by men who view pornography. With the help of law professor Catharine MacKinnon and others, Dworkin began to form a framework for viewing pornography as a form of active discrimination and violence against women. They began by attempting to bring a lawsuit in for Linda Lovelace to stop showings of Deep Throat, who contended that she was raped throughout the making of the film. The suit failed due to the Statute of Limitations. They next attempted to draft a zoning law to keep adult bookstores out of residential neighborhoods, and again failed, this time due to free speech protection in the Supreme Court.

 

Women's rights: For

 

One of the groups challenging Dworkin and MacKinnon's work was a group calling itself the Feminist Anti-Censorship Task Force (FACT), which included authors Betty Friedan, Kate Millett and Adrienne Rich. They attacked Dworkin and MacKinnon's work as 'reinforcing sexist stereotypes'. Later, when Dworkin and MacKinnon proposed 'An Act to Protect the Civil Rights of Women and Children' (H. 5194) with Representative Barbara Hildt, the National Organization of Women (NOW) attacked the bill for taking the blame away from the criminals who committed the act, and placing it on the publishers, instead. In her book Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex, and the Fight for Women's Rights (1995), law professor and former ACLU president Nadine Strossen points to Censorship as the true enemy of women's rights, not pornography. She argues that censorship is used to repress information relevant to women, and, by arguing for 'pro-censorship,' people like Dworkin and MacKinnon are actually doing more harm than good.

 

Sexual Exploitation of Children

 

The laws which govern Child-porn and the 'Sexual Exploitation of Children', unlike those regarding pornography and obscenity, are not only rigidly defined, but also include descriptions of the potential effects on the victim.

 

Title 18, Part 1, Chapter 110, Section 2251 of the U.S. Code defines 'The Sexual Exploitation Of Children' as 'Any person who employs, uses, [. . . , etc.] any minor to engage in [. . .] any sexually explicit conduct for the purpose of producing [. . .] or for the purpose of transmitting a live visual depiction of such conduct' or 'Any parent, legal guardian, or person having custody or control of a minor who knowingly permits such minor to engage in [. . .] any sexually explicit conduct for the purpose of producing [. . .] or for the purpose of transmitting a live visual depiction of such conduct'. This same section also provides provisions with regard to the transportation, distribution, and reproduction of these same images, including by computer.

 

Effects on the child:

 

According to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 'It is important to realize that these images are crime scene photos - they are a permanent record of the abuse of a child. The lives of the children featured in these illegal images and videos are forever altered.'

 

The Problem with Enforcement: Restrictions and Reality

 

According to a recently released study of teen and young adults' behavior conducted online by Washington, D.C.-based advocacy group 'the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy', approximately one in five of all teens has sent or posted nude or semi-nude photos of themselves. This study, which was taken by 1,280 people ranging from ages 13 to 26, does not, however, show the repercussions faced by numerous teens. Last March, an 18 year old teen boy in Florida was charged with transporting child pornography after e-mailing nude pictures of his 16 year old girlfriend to over 70 people. He is now serving 5 years probation and is registered as a sex offender. A teen girl in Ohio recently hanged herself after the harassment which ensued after her boyfriend emailed nude and semi-nude pictures of her to friends, which later shoed up on the internet and spread throughout her school. While the study attempts to show that teens are expressing their own sexuality using the latest online technology (cell phones, texting, Facebook, etc.), what is not being said is that there is growing peer pressure among teens to create, trade in, and even mass distribute materials which the US Government views as child pornography. This argument is not helped, however, by a case which is being contested by the ACLU, in which a teen who had a picture of her taken in her bra distributed without her knowledge, and was then charged with distributing child pornography. While the prosecutor is stating that the photograph violates the definition of 'lewd behavior', but the defense claims that the photo was no more lewd than kids at a beach.

 

According to a January, 2010 article in the Guardian, new airport 'body-scanners' break child protection laws. The article states that 'A 12-month trial at Manchester airport of scanners which reveal naked images of passengers including their genitalia and breast enlargements.' They also state that 'Privacy campaigners claim the images created by the machines are so graphic they amount to 'virtual strip-searching''.

 

Associated press writer MaryClaire Dale reported in February on a situation with the Lower Merion school district. Lower Merion officials acknowledged that, using remote-activation software, they remotely activated webcams 42 times in the past 14 months, for the purpose of finding missing student laptops. 'They insist they never did so to spy on students' which is what a student's family is claiming in a federal lawsuit. Because of the nature of the lawsuit, the FBI is exploring whether Lower Merion School District officials broke any federal wiretap or computer-intrusion laws. Privacy experts stated that remote activation purposes can be used to 'steal passwords' or 'track the whereabouts of' others. They also say that 'Compromising images from inside a student's bedroom could fall into the hands of rogue school staff or otherwise be spread across the Internet'. Ari Schwartz, vice president at the Center for Democracy and Technology, was quoted as asking, 'What about the (potential) abuse of power from higher ups, trying to find out more information about the head of the PTA?' In a statement issued by American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania legal director Witold Walczak, 'This is an age where kids explore their sexuality, so there's a lot of that going on in the room. This is fodder for child porn.'

 

Conclusion

 

Generally, pornography, while perhaps more graphic or prevalent than the stories, plays and artwork which are its ancestry, still faces the same two-faced attitude that it always has. On one side of the coin, it is a plaything; a toy of entertainment and sexual gratification with which we explore ourselves. On the other, it is a great and terrible social evil, debasing and reducing our humanity, while also forcing us to face openly and view blatantly many of our deepest social taboos with regard to sex and sexuality. It is the former which those who defend pornography truly stand in defense of, while those who stand opposed do so with the religious fervor of a medieval crusade or puritan inquisition, so embraced by their hatred of the evil they see in the latter that hurl about accusations of social and psychological harm which are at least unsupported, if not outright debunked and refuted, by the scientific community. It is due to the natures of both sides that full, legal definitions of obscenity and pornography have never been settled on, which has become the bane of those attempting to legislate on materials viewed as such. After all, if you can't define something, how can you make it illegal?

 

Child pornography, however, shares no such ambiguity. The term 'Sexual Exploitation of Children' illustrates an exacting definition with more in common with child abuse than with those vague attempts to define pornography, and is opposed just as absolutely. However, due to its connection to both child abuse and pornography, child pornography is opposed and fought with greater passion and zealotry than the two put together. Unfortunately, this eagerness leads those manning the fight to do so without any regard to whose rights they may violate, even those of the people they seek to protect.

 

Whether debating the questionable morality of Pornography or fighting the 'absolute evil' of child pornography, child abuse, and the sexual exploitation of children, there is a further moral issue which is not as easily observed. In our studies of ethical theories which are or are not workable, the one thing that defines a theory as workable is objectivity. However, when one side of an issue is labeled as 'evil', objectivity is lost, sometimes completely, and the morality of the issue is forced into subjectivity, tainting any moral debate with unworkable theory. By applying such a label, by tainting this debate, the true analysis of the ethics and morality of any issue become inaccessible. The truth of who could be harmed and who needs to be protected is lost, replaced by dogma and rhetoric, clouded and obfuscated. Rights are ignored, people are worked around, any potential greatest outcome is lost. This, in other words, is the very definition of 'amoral'.


51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创优秀代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写assignment代写paper代写作业代写、论文代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的论文代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多代写范文提供论文代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:Role of Media in Society 下一篇:The concept of financial manag