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The concept of financial management contingency and related regulations

2021-04-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇关于The concept of financial management contingency and related regulations的代写范文,供大家参考学习。

摘要:本文是一篇文学研究论文。尽管邓巴受到主流文学传统的限制,在20世纪初,赫斯特表达了对传统的强烈反抗并发出了非裔美国人的声音。与其他将黑人犯罪归咎于城市化的非裔美国作家不同,邓巴认为乔的怪物起源于南方,但城市生活只会加速它的发展。小说的主人公乔,在上帝的游戏中无法自救,也无法逃脱。事实上,他的命运取决于白人种族主义的控制。本文主要研究白人种族主义对黑人的渗透,着重研究黑人种族意识在种族内部的包容。


Chapter One Class Ostracization by the ConservativeSouthern Blacks


1.1 Repulsion by the Southern Orthodoxy Religion

There are three dimensions of racial uplift in the struggle against racism, includingmoral uplift, intellectual uplift, andphysical uplift.Moral uplift meansgrowthin ethicalsophistication, spiritual and religious consciousness. Intellectual uplift includes formaland informal education and the improvement of cultural literacy. And physical upliftrelates to “improving clothing, health condition, and social conduct, qualities thatsupposedly stabilized interior psyche, emotions, and spirit” (Jarrett 54). As a blackbarber who lives in a cottage of the white family and works for the white barbershops,Joe makes an unremitting endeavor to get physical uplift. According to hardworking,Joe and his family accumulate a large amount of money. He shows superiority upon theuneducated conservative blacks and tries to escape from his black identity. However,his racial uplift consciousness is regarded as an illegal transgression and is containedby the disciplined southern blacks.

From the seventeenth century to the Civil War, lots of blacks are suffering fromthe exploitation of the white society both physically and spiritually. They have to seekhelp fromaspiritual substancethat cankeepthemalive.Thus,theyresort toChristianityto get spiritual redemption. As Greenblatt asserts, “there never was any remarkablelawgiver amongst any people who did not resort to divine authority, as otherwise hislaws would not have been accepted by the people” (24). In the discussion of thepostbellum life, DuBoissuggeststhatblacksarenot truly liberateddespitethelanguageof the law; rather, they are statically incarcerated in a new slavery experience (qtd. InVega 222). The great irony is that the blacks get freedom as long as they get rid of theslave identity, however, they are unableto breakthe confinement of the white authority.The profound reason is that religion is also a kind of tool used by the authority toeducate people and to strengthen ideological power.


1.2 Ostracization by the Disciplined Black Subalterns

Jonathan Dollimore suggests that subversion is “produced from a multitude ofsources that vie with the dominant ideology for hegemony” (Dollimore 125).The racialuplift ideology performs as a subversive ideology and is offered as a form of culturalpolitics, in thehopethatunsympathetic whites would relentandrecognizethe humanityof middle-classAfricanAmericans, and their potential for pursuing the citizenship thatthe black men have possessed during Reconstruction. It reflects theAfricanAmerican’sdesire for social mobility and equal legal rights. For many middle-class AfricanAmericans, “uplift cameto meananemphasisonself-help,racialsolidarity, temperance,thrift, chastity, social purity, patriarchal authority, and the accumulation of wealth”(Gaines 2). In that era, the black elites’pursuing bourgeois qualifications for rights andcitizenship by claiming Negro improvement. However, in dealing with the relationshipwith the disciplined subalterns, the black elites are facing with the awkward situationthat the social and cultural forces deny their status when they regard themselves asmiddle class.
In accordance with the concepts of New Historicism, the containment meanscompromising between the subordinated or marginal groups and the dominant power.At the beginning of the novel, Dunbar applies the plantation tradition and makes subversive use of it: “Fiction has said so much in regret of theold days when there wereplantations and overseers and masters and slaves, that it was good to come upon such ahousehold as Berry Hamilton’s, if for no reason than that it afforded relief from themonotony of tiresome iteration” (1). In accordance with his interpretation, he prefers tomold the Hamiltons as a special family to break the plantation myth. They choose toturn their backs on the black community to maintain relationships with the whitepopulation of the town. Their actions insult conservative townspeople. And theconservative blacks believe that the Hamiltons’ intimate relationship with the whiteswill separate them from the blacks. Dunbar includes extensive speculative commentaryon the alleged theft from the black townspeople to suggest that Berry’s imprisonmentcan almost be regarded as a punishment he deserves because of his family’s excessivepride. Evidence of this reaction is exemplified in Isaac Brown’s remembering thatbefore the trial Kit repeatedly snubbed his daughter Minty. This feeling of resentmenttoward the Hamiltons in their time of trouble is a commentary on the way they had setthemselves above other members of their races: “W’enevah you see niggahs gittin’ sohigh dat dey own folks ain’good enough for em, lookout” (29).

Chapter Two Demoralization by the Northern BlackBohemians


2.1 Enticement by the Hedonist in the Banner Club

W.E.B. Dubois points out that there are three causes for the so-called Negroproblems, the first tworeasons include slavery, emancipation and “immigration with itsincreasedcompetition and moral influence”(284).However, thetworeasonsmentionedabove are eclipsed by the third reason in which the former slave and his offspring whomigrate to northern cities find themselves, “namely, the environment… the world ofcustom and thought in which he must live and work, the moral encouragements anddiscouragements which he encounters” (284). After ostracized by the Southern blackcommunity and dispossessed by the whites, the rest members of the Hamiltons have toseek working opportunities and new life in New York. They are similar to manysouthern blacks who failed to seek opportunities in northern cities since they are ill-equipped to adapt to the new surroundings.

When they move to New York, the black men of the urban North are bothincitement to andmirrorforJoe’sdeterioration. Marlon B.Rosscontendsthattheliberalenvironment of New York “only increases the seductiveness of moral sexual licensewithout affecting any concomitant political, economic, or social reform” (145). Dunbartends to demonstrate that Joe’s descent into urban corruption is the result of urbancommercial culture and deep-rooted racism. Dunbar expresses the sense that the self-help, leadership ideals paled before the magnitude of social conditions in cities. Hisambivalent sense of the black urban life indicates in his depictions vividly. He statesthat people in the Banner Club prefer to dress in fantastic costumes and “threwthemselves into it because they enjoyed and felt what they were doing, and they gavealmost a semblance of dignity to the tawdry musicand inane words” (42). Here Dunbarregarded popular entertainment as an opiate for the black people, especially for it hasnegative effects for people like Joe who holds the idea of racial uplift.
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2.2Assimilation by the Black Criminality in the Banner Club

Thomas Alan Dicher gives an explicit discussion about the modern discourse ofblack criminality in the novel. In New York, the black population grew by twenty-fivethousand between 1890 and 1900. The migration’s life in big cities attracts many eliteblacks to pay attention to the correlation between urbanization and moral chaos. DuBois praises that the novel delivers an idea of the temptations that surround the youngimmigrant. In the description of the Hamiltons’ voyage to the North, Dunbar presentsthe negative effects of black urban life rather than depicts New York as heaven. NewYork is regarded as the mecca by all aspiring young men and women from the ruralSouth to cities. Joe and his family members are the representations of these people.After they arrived in New York, they found the difficulties of making a decent living through work with their education and status aspirations. The idle, shiftless Northernblacks despair the Hamiltons. Their environment promoted crime and obliterated themoral sense, andtheintelligent,moral, andindustriousSouthernmigrantsarepowerlessto rescue these fallen masses in Northern cities.

Chapter Three Psychological Degradation by the Mulatto ............... 32

3.1 Disgrace as Subordinate “Dog”................... 32

3.2 Destruction as Black “Frankenstein”.................. 36

Conclusion .................. 41


Chapter Three Psychological Degradation by the Mulatto


3.1 Disgrace as Subordinate “Dog”

According to Dunbar’s description, the mulatto figure, Hattie, has multiplesymbolistic meaning. On the one hand, she is a subversive figure which represents thetransgression of race and gender boundaries in American society. On the other hand,she symbolizes the whitecoercive power whichcontains the blackpeople. Hattie’slightskin metaphorically signifies white femininity. She draws Joe farther away from his family members and pulls him closer to the culture of the Banner Club. She does notonly threaten the family affection; she is also the embodiment of the threat that themulatto poses to the national family. She is a version of the fallen woman as a femalegrotesque, but she also has the power to ruin others. Hattie serves as the master of Joe,in other words, she is also one of the Gods to Joe. It is Hattie who deepens themonstrosity of Joe. She tries to “educate” Joe throughout the novel by exposing him tothe urban psychological realities of suffering, loving, losing, and desiring that transpirebetween men and women—elements that position her as a blues character not only inher profession but in her lifestyle. Dunbar molds Hattie as a “blues woman”, accordingto Hazel Carby, “brought to the black, urban, working-class an awareness of its socialexistence and acted creatively to vocalize the contradictions and tensions of the terrainof sexual politics in the relation of black working-class culture to the culture of theemergent black middle class” (755).
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Conclusion

Although Dunbar is extremely confined by the dominating literary tradition, hestill expresses anironicinversion towardthetraditionanduttersthevoiceof theAfricanAmerican at the turn of the twentieth century. Unlike other African American writerswho attributethe causes of theblack criminality to the urbanization, Dunbar asserts thatJoe’s monstrosity begins in the South, and the urban life only accelerates it. The noveloffers no possibility for Joe to redeem himself or hide from the games of the gods. Infact, his fate rests in the control of the white racism. This thesis mainly focuses on thepenetration of white racism among blacks and pays attention to the intraracialcontainment for theblackracial uplift consciousnessat theendof thenineteenth century.

As a writer with keen observation, Dunbar observes several factors that cause thedifficulties for the development of black racial uplift consciousness. In the novel,Dunbar not only criticizes the paternity and racism of the white authority, he alsoreveals that it is the conservative blacks themselves who prevent the racial progress.The southern conservative blacks symbolize a community that is disciplined by whitesupremacy. They embrace the idea that the blacks should bend themselves to the whiteauthority.Theyregard Joe,whobelongsto theblackmiddleclass, asasubversivefigurewhich challenges the southern plantation tradition. Thus, they prevent his pursuit ofuplift to maintainthebalancebetweenthewhitesandtheblacksin theSouth. Moreover,Dunbar notices that the urban black bohemia culture also has negative impacts on theblack elites’pursuit of moral uplift. The black bohemians are depicted as idle parasitesthat cause Joe’s downfall directly by their enticement of hedonism and prevailingdiscourse of criminality. Last but not least, he also pays close attention to thepsychological degradation caused by the female mulatto, for which both accelerate themonstrosity of the blacks and contains the marginal blacks’ attempts to improve theirsocial status.

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