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Political Parties & the US Elections

2021-04-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

给大家推荐一篇优秀的代写Paper范文-- Political Parties & the US Elections。

作为美国民主的组成部分,各政党积极推动了美国的民主进程。 两党之间从来没有社会阶级的反对。 此外,他们在政治和统治国家方面的价值观高度一致,使其成为选举中的稳定因素。 但是,美国各政党越来越倾向于反对而不是合作。 这使得选举过程比应有的重要。 选举并没有选择代表最代表人民的政党,而是成为政党之间资源和影响力的竞争。 政党阻碍了美国的民主进程,因为它有助于创造更昂贵,更人为操纵,效率低下和两极化的选举。

 

As an integral part of American democracy, political parties actively promoted the democratic process in the United States. There has never been social class opposition between the two parties. In addition, their values in politics and ruling the country are highly aligned, making them a stabilizing factor in elections. However, American political parties are increasingly inclined to oppose rather than cooperate. This makes the election process more important than it should be. The election does not choose the party that represents the most representative of the people, but becomes a competition for resources and influence among parties. Political parties hinder the democratic process in the United States because it helps create more expensive, more manipulative, inefficient, and polarized elections.

 

During the election process, the two political parties spent a lot of money on election campaigns. By the 2010s, election spending in the United States had reached nearly $2 billion (Montjoy, 2010). The method of mutual attack has gradually become the main method of election operation. This leads to the waste of a lot of precious resources. Although these funds can be better used to listen to the voice of the public and improve their lives, democracy has become a game between the two parties. Although human resource costs, voting convenience, equipment and management costs have increased dramatically in recent years, the increase in the number of voters has been much smaller (Montjoy, 2010). The cumulative impact of increased costs has caused the focus to shift to a larger scale. Due to the complexity of the procedures, elections in the United States have become more and more expensive. The resource competition between the two parties hinders the democratic process because these political resources can be allocated more appropriately.

 

The opposition between the two parties made the election more vulnerable to manipulation by non-democratic factors. In an experiment conducted by Nownes (2012), the influence of celebrity support on elections was studied. From the results, it can be found that if voters have positive or negative impressions of celebrities, then their personal preferences can influence voters (Nownes, 2012). In the United States, political parties have become "brands", and whoever wins the election depends on which party has better marketing capabilities and interesting advertising. If someone is popular among voters, celebrity endorsements will obviously give the party an advantage. This commercialization of important democratic processes opens all doors to potential manipulation. The public's perception of political parties is easily affected by celebrities, personal images of leaders, and false news generated by the pipeline. This has further exacerbated the public's lack of confidence in political leaders and even political leaders. The entire political system. When political parties pay too much attention to manipulating public opinion, the democratic process of winning elections is hindered.

 

The two parties have also led to inefficiencies in elections and the entire political system. When the development of the two parties gradually separates the interests of the public from the interests of the party, politicians will think twice before making a decision. Replaced representatives who directly represent the well-being of the people, because many people put the priority of the party above the state (Westfall, 2015). The attacks between the two parties during the election may be for display purposes only. However, these activities can still affect administrative management in the future. The hostility between the parties extends to the formulation and implementation of policies, thus creating the biggest source of inefficiency. In emergency situations, this shortcoming is particularly prominent. In situations of conflict and polarization, it takes longer to make a decision to respond. In addition, when certain things happen, the opposition party will always blame the ruling party, which will weaken the efficiency and authority of the government.

 

Political parties have polarized American voters. This polarization is also expanding to the ideological level (Layman and Carsey, 2002). A growing body of evidence shows that Americans are increasingly divided on social welfare, race, and cultural issues. This polarization is the result of the two parties trying to distinguish themselves. For example, in the last presidential election, Clinton's supporters could not stand Trump, and the same was true for the other party. Democracy is about listening to the voice of the majority. However, the polarization caused by the two parties leaves no "majority" here. When 51% of the public voices were answered and the remaining 49% were ignored, the meaning of democracy was greatly weakened. As a result, the political parties, once a tool for promoting democracy, are becoming a political monopoly once elected. The power of the country is getting closer and closer to the power of the party itself. This undermines the benefits of the separation of powers.

 

In short, the political parties are no longer a positive factor in the American democratic process. "Brand effect" makes the identity and presence of the parties more important than they should be. The competition and election process between the two parties is not an integral part of the political system, but half of the American democratic process (the other half is the management process). The opposition between parties makes them more susceptible to outside influence. The attention to the voice of the people was lost, and unnecessary resources were wasted in the election process instead. On the other hand, the public is also affected by the political divisions caused by the parties. The country has become divided rather than united, especially in terms of ideology. Political reforms are urgently needed to restore the original functions of political parties in order to stabilize the democratic process again.


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