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Department for Work&Pensions

2021-04-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组今天给各位留学生带来一篇劳动经济代写范文,普遍信贷制度是英国推出的一项社会保障计划,旨在惠及一般低收入或失业公民,取代之前的六项福利:子女税收抵免、住房福利、收入支持、基于收入的求职者津贴、与收入有关的就业和支持津贴以及工作税收抵免。英国工作与养老金部(Department for Work&Pensions)表示,普遍信贷的目的是支持住房支出、托儿费用,并为残疾公民增加福利。自2010年宣布普及信贷以来,这项政策逐步取得进展,并使更多来自更广泛地区和人口的合格公民参与到欧盟中。

Universal Credit System is a social security program introduced by the UK to benefit general low-income or unemployed citizens replacing six previous benefits: Child Tax Credit, Housing Benefit, Income Support, Income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance, Income-related Employment and Support Allowance, and Working Tax Credit. The purpose for Universal Credit, stated by the UK Department for Work & Pensions, was to support on housing expenses, childcare cost, and to add benefits for citizens with disabilities.  Since the announcement of Universal Credit in 2010, the policy had been gradually making progress and involving more eligible citizens from a broader regions and populations among the Union.

Official statistics published by the UK Department for Work & Pensions shows in July 2019 the people enrolled had increased to 2.3 million by 5% from June 2019 and more than a double figure from 1 million in July 2018, where the current enrollers including 33% (760,000) in employment, 41% (930,000) in the Searching for Work conditionality regime, and 55% (1.3 million) female. Households with children receive a higher payment to support the living and educational expenses for the younger generation to eliminate the negative impacts from the households’ financial situation where a single claimant without children received an average payment at £460, and an average payment at £930 with children. Universal Credit is still undergoing its transitions for individuals had already enrolled in the six previous welfare programs and had been behind schedule for the aim in 2022 as well as seven delays since 2013. The UK government found challenges to complete the process for the controversial position Universal Credit was placed ever since its announcement a decade ago, in which the public evaluates its outcome comparing to the previous programs and holds doubt towards its impact on individuals’ beneficial earnings (Butler & Walker, 2016).

Referring to the nature reflected by replacement rate, which defines by the comparison between net income when unemployed and net income when employed, the incentive to work tend to decrease when the rate is higher. If the benefits and financial subsidy exceeded the expectation when people are unemployed, they tend to disincentive to work. For households transferring into Universal Credit from the old system resulted in an estimated loss at £1,000 or more annually for 1.9 million especially the ones affected by the cuts in work allowance, where people earned less payment from before the benefits start to reduce (Schraer, 2020). In 2015, authority decided to place changes towards the Universal Credit in terms of work allowance to reduce the social security budget spent on the benefits that stressed the credit payments received by Universal Credit claimants. Acts taken to freeze the amount earning from work before started to withdraw the benefits; though in 2016 the system increased the proportion of childcare subsidy from 70% to 85%, a year later in 2017 the system removed the £545 first child annual premium with restriction set for families with only more than two children (Citizen Advice, 2018). Universal Credit aims to target a lower replacement rate in order to push for work incentive, which encourages citizens to work for higher income so that could decrease unemployment rate. Universal Credit also does not set a limit for the claimants on the hours of work, which also intend to increase work incentive where claimants could work extra hours without losing the eligibility for the benefits as long as their financial level still remains qualified.

As much as Universal Credit tries to drive a lower replacement rate by reducing some of the benefits theoretically, the assumption was unrealistic considering a big portion of the population affected. Survey concluded that only 51% of the population would increase the incentive to work by trying to earn more income through employment, and 26% of the other half was struggling with the fact that they would not be able to earn more income through employment (Citizen Advice, 2018). Many of the employed claimants under Universal Credit have already worked with their reservation wage resulted the lower-income situations, and they found it difficult to earn more income through an increase of their rate of pay rather than to work extra hours. Survey showed that many claimants has struggles as barriers for them to work more hours including 27% for obligations outside of work, 23% for child caring responsibilities, and 18% due to disabilities and health conditions. The application of Universal Credit did increase people’s incentive to work however created challenges for them, leading towards claimants originally with lower income to suffer from a worse financial situation.

Even though Universal Credit has not been completely transformed among its population and had been delayed several times, the concept might be well-adapted by other countries regarding the positive effects on a different case. The 2018 OECD Economics Surveys for Ireland had reflected the status and position it stands for the growing economy, which is positively resulting a high living standard where unemployment rate has an ongoing trend of decrease since its departure from the EU-IMF financial assistance programme in late-2013 from above 15% to almost 6%. Although the barriers of employment have been compromising gradually, the challenges still remain for the young-age citizens who are low-skilled or low-educated regarding employment. The current Irish social welfare system is potentially lowering people’s incentive to work with higher participation tax rates by the loss of unemployment benefits, while Ireland also remains the highest replacement rate after five years of unemployment among OECD countries.

For the current Irish welfare benefit only pays a flat rate to the unemployment and benefits in favoring the unemployed individuals, the report suggested to modify social benefits eligibility on earnings instead of employment status and to review the long-term unemployment programs followed by a new system with training programs to increase people’s incentive to work. The general labor force participation is weak in Ireland due to a high average effective tax rates, work requirements, and high childcare costs. The Universal Credit System, however, a social security designed to encourage people’s incentive to work could be used as a reference for Ireland to promote a universal welfare programme, where people would be eligible for benefits based on their income while disregarding their employment status, and childcare benefits are also involved in the monthly payment received where it would be more friendly to households with children.

The benefits under Universal Credit will potentially eliminate the long-term flat gains from unemployment and will evaluate claimants’ status on income level; jobless people will then consider the option to search for work without the worry based on Irish current policy where benefits were distributed according to employment status. However, recommendations for Ireland on if Universal Credit were adapted would be focusing on avoiding the negative impacts in UK where lower-income claimants experienced worse financing, which could potentially happen among the current unemployed population in Ireland; hence designed of training programs and reasonable housing and childcare proportion in the credit payments would be necessary to enlarge the benefits for both the people and the government where individuals became more skillful, knowledgeable, and competitive for work positions while the government could cut its budget on benefits spending and continue on decreasing the unemployment rates to support the economy of Ireland.

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