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Who has more power, Congress or the President?

2021-04-23 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

给大家推荐一篇优秀的Essay代写范文。谁拥有更大的权力,国会还是总统? 不可否认的是,国会在19世纪占据统治地位,因为其大部分权力直接由宪法赋予。 但是,在20世纪,总统通过运用来自宪法,体制或政治来源的权力获得了更多权力。 如今,国会和总统都没有在美国政府中占主导地位,甚至创造了“分裂政府”。

 

Who has more power, Congress or the President? It is undeniable that Congress dominated the 19th century because most of its powers were directly conferred by the Constitution. However, in the 20th century, the president gained more power through the use of power from constitutional, institutional, or political sources. Today, neither Congress nor the President dominate the US government, it even created a "divided government" (Lecturer 2017, 2).

 

The U.S. Congress has extensive authority over the country, and its powerful force cannot be ignored. The source of constitutional power held by Congress mainly comes from the Constitution, and the core power is to make laws. It also has the power to declare war, appoint federal judiciary, pass laws and regulations, assemble the army or navy, coin money, and consume and collect taxes (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 274). In fact, Congress is designed in accordance with the Constitution and is the most powerful of the three departments. The House of Representatives and the Senate have these powers, and the constitutional basis ensures that Congress is the ultimate authority for legislation. The House of Representatives and the Senate are also different in terms of representation, which determines their own exclusive power. The Senate has the sole authority to ratify treaties and approve presidential appointments, while the House of Representatives can introduce tax bills (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 43). During the legislative process, Congress may be affected by many factors, including party leaders, congressional colleagues and the presidency in internal affairs, as well as legislators from constituencies and interest groups in external affairs (Ginsberg, et al. 2017, 295 ). Therefore, it is obvious that Congress is the most important factor in the process of legislation becoming law. Compared with other legislatures, the US Congress has independent resources to compete with the executive branch and retain autonomy over other departments, so it is very unique compared to other legislatures (Lecturer 2017, 8). However, the president also has many constitutional powers. In some cases, he can pass Congress on certain issues. Over the past century, Congress has delegated most of its legislative power to the executive branch (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 322). As a result, the inherent power claimed by modern presidents exceeds the power of expression and authorization. For example, when the terrorist attack occurred in 2001, President Bush used his inherent presidential power to demand military operations against the Taliban regime. Although Congress passed a resolution in support of his actions, Bush believes that he does not need Congress’s authorization (Ginsberg et al. 2017, 324).

 

Unlike the Congress, which relies heavily on its constitutional power, the power of the President mainly comes from the institutional resources of the Congressional delegation. The agency chair agency has four areas: White House staff, independent agencies and government companies, the cabinet and the executive office of the president. The power of the cabinet is lower than that of the parliamentary state, but the White House staff, the president’s executive office, independent agencies and government companies have a great influence on the president’s institutional power. White House staff are closest to the president’s preferences, while modern presidents tend to hire more staff (Ginsberg et al., 2017, 332). On the other hand, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) is an important symbol of modern presidential power. It performs most of the management tasks of the president, and all employees are very professional and professional.

 

The President of the United States can mobilize his various institutions and political resources to challenge the dominance of Congress. In the past century, the president has tried to expand power through popular mobilization, administration, and political parties (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 328).

 

The first strategy is called "going public", which enables the president to build a large-scale support base among the people (Ginsberg et al., 2017, 329). Popular mobilization has become a useful tool for the president because it can connect the executive office with the public and familiarize people with the political agenda and personal charm. The public relations strategy adopted by the president can also emphasize its advantages and gain the greatest public appeal through public speeches and debates in the media. The latest social media has surpassed traditional media and can directly connect the public with the president (Ginsberg et al., 2017, 330). The FDR is a good example of the successful mobilization of public opinion in the 20th century. Recent presidents such as Barak Obama and Donald Trump have even used the Internet to interact with ordinary people and gain support.

 

The second is to strengthen control over the executive branch and reduce dependence on Congress. This strategy is often used, and it is useful even if the president cannot win the support of Congress. The largest EOP Office of Institutional Management and Budget (OMB) provides a top-down budget approach for the executive branch and Congress. Other EOP agencies specialize in other areas of work to ensure that the president can handle his daily work. The vice president is another political source of the president's power during the election, and during the election, the vice president can also serve as a management resource for the president. In addition, the regulatory review process can also enhance the president’s power by helping the president control the executive branch’s legislation. This is because Congress usually leaves room for executive agencies to fill gaps when formulating regulations, which in turn strengthens the power of the president (Ginsberg et al., 2017, 332). Presidents also generally use executive orders and other presidential orders to develop their powers. Of course, if there is no proper constitution or statutory basis, the president cannot sign executive orders as he pleases, but if the president successfully issues the executive order, the executive order will still have a significant impact. For example, Bush issued more than 300 executive orders during his eight-year tenure, while Obama issued as many as 242 executive orders during his tenure (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 333). The president can also sign a statement to deny congressional actions he opposes, or repeal certain regulations. Presidents Reagan, Bush, and Obama have all issued many singing statements opposing Congress’s opposition or restrictions to achieve multiple goals (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 334).

 

Finally, it relies heavily on its own political party for legislative activities. Although the president has no control over the party's certain degree of autonomy, it is still a reliable political resource. For example, Obama has relied on the Democrats to prevent Republicans from opposing the nuclear restriction agreement between the United States and Iran (Ginsberg et al., 2017, p. 329). However, in recent years the president has reduced his reliance on political parties, because in some cases the other party may occupy a majority of seats in Congress.

 

Congress used to rule in the 19th century, but over the years, the president has gradually gained greater power through the use of its institutional and political resources. It is very dangerous to have a strong president and a weak Congress, who have the power to administer the country and make laws. However, I believe that the mechanism of checks and balances will be restored in the future, and the president cannot have the power they want. Although Congress has been accused of misconduct and many people have lost trust in the government, it is still an important part of the ruling system (Montilla 2017). The president’s support still comes from the dominance of his party in Congress, as the trends of the past few decades have shown (Ginsberg et al., 2017, 334). This means that if the president does not have a majority of the party in Congress, he will face more difficulties in implementing the agenda. Moreover, the power of the president is also limited by the budget and spending power of Congress. If there is a budget dispute between the legislative branch and the executive branch, Congress can use its power to shut down government agencies in exchange for compromise. Moreover, the president's influence on the national economy is limited. The influence on the national economy is mainly exercised by the Federal Reserve rather than the President. In fact, the national economy will affect people's confidence in the president and even affect his chances of re-election. All in all, there may still be a divided government in the future, and neither of these two governments will be dominant.


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