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Ren(Jen) as it is understood in Confucianism, discuss the ethical implications for the individual and for society according to these principles

2021-03-02 来源: 洋蜜蜂Online Tutor 类别: Essay范文

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Ren(Jen) as it is understood in Confucianism, discuss the ethical implications for the individual and for society according to these principles.

For thousands of years until present day, Confucianism has been known and recognized as the critical thinking system of Chinese. However, to Chinese people or other Asia countries, Confucianism is a system that representing their religion and philosophy which was established by the famous sage Kong Fuzi. Based on historical record, the Confucianism did not recognize during Confucius’ time, on the contrary, Confucius saw himself as a transmitter who was trying to revitalize the meaning of the past by advocating a ritualized life. Confucius’ desire of understanding the life form and institutions had motivated him to analyze the reverence for ancestors, human-centered religious practices and mourning ceremonies and passed on his findings to his students. The value of the Confucianism is based on Confucius’ faith of the cumulative power of culture, he believes the values of culture and social norms were the key to the idealized civilization.

 Confucianism’s followers are called Confucianists and the scriptures that they have been using to educate and pass on the wisdom of Confucianism is called Classics or Jing. Jin or Classics is a literary work that has been accepted as Confucianism’s authoritative throughout the time, it has been divided into two parts known as the Five Classics and Four Books. Five Classics consist of Yi Jing, Classic of History, Classic of Poetry, Spring and Autumn Classic and the Li Jing; Four Books consist of Lunyu, Mengzi, Ta Hsueh and Chung Yung. The main concept of the Confucianism is Jen, which is about the center of human heartedness or humanity. It is a sense or feeling of humanity of one self towards other and self-esteem towards oneself. Confucius believes that human’s personality is by nature good, he did not actually discuss the good or evil personality in humanity but he did argue that the one person must hold a good personality in order to bring the good out of others’ innate. The other value concept of Confucianism is Li, which means the principle or the concrete guide to human action. Moreover, Confucianists see Li as a general principle of social order of human life.

Since Confucianism was introduced to the world, it was recognized as a system of social and ethical philosophy instead of religion, even when Master Kong who founded the Confucianism he did not intend to form his ideal as a new religion. One of the Four Books – Mengzi, the central concept of this book is that the human nature is and should be constituted for the practice of what is good. The goal of Confucius was to reform the government, and based on what he had believed that a good ruler would have brought out the good innate of his followers. He understood how hard it was to reform the government, therefore, he took a turn and decided to educate the young blood whom he believed could change and influence the world in the future. Learning Confucius’ Five Classics and Four Books was mandatory to all Chinese, even Japan, Korea and Taiwan have included Confucius in their textbooks, and the goodness of human nature is the entry level to the Confucianism.

LunYu has recorded the conversation that the Confucius had had with his students; people learn and understand Confucius’ perspective of the world, humanity and political stand. Lun Yu has impact people’s basic understanding of the goodness of human nature by studying the conversations within Master Kong and his students. Moreover, Master Kong’s theory of learning has great impact on Chinese’ education system; he once said that studying without thinking is a labor lost and thinking without studying is dangerous. Master Kong believes that learning is a process of observation of subject matter no matter it’s an object or people. Therefore, the thinking system that was established by the Confucius or Confucients has become a stereotype of the Chinese culture of learning. Because of Confucius encouraged people to think and observe, it had had become a traditional perspective that all Chinese focus on examination results and generally perform well in answering questions that require memorization. Good at memorizing and calculation has become a general idea when foreigners first meet with Chinese people. Due to the fact that the Confucius’ philosophy is too close linked to education and learning, Chinese’ conventional educational approaches have slightly impact to the education system. Additionally, despite China’s isolation from outside world, the Western culture still found its way slowly penetrated and broke the system of Chinese culture or social system. Chinese’ education system still keeps the Confucius’ basic learning method which is consolidated the foundation of all the learning subjects after they opened up to the world. (Rajaram)

Despite Lunyu, Mencius is another key to the Confucianism, which is known as the self-styled transmitter of Confucianism. And his story is often used to tell students the importance of selecting the right way and place to learn. He is the grandson of Confucius and inherent his brilliant mindset and demonstrate it as a philosopher and political activist. He had implemented the idea of division of labor and help labors to see that the services is equally important as productivity. What he had impacted the society is through his behavior of treating strangers as his own families. He believed that the family is the foundation of social organization and it has contended excessive attention to self-interest which would have led to political disorder. Mencius’ idea had impacted the society on changing the language of profit, wealth and power by making it as part of a moral discourse. He’s idea had reform the relationship that people could bond with government ministers, officers and so forth. (Confucianism-Mencius: The Paradigmatic Confucian Intellectual…)

The other key of Confucianism that has great impact on the society is the five relationships and it’s teaching from the Classic of Rites. Confucius had categorized people into five different relationships, in each pairing, the member who is in the lower hierocracy has the duty to honor and obey the upper member within that relationship and the member who is in the higher hierocracy has to duty to guide the relationship towards the benevolent. The five relationships are: ruler and minister, parent and child, husband and wife, elder brother and younger brother, last but not least older friend and younger friend. This five relationships concept is from the Five Classics – Li, which dictates how people prioritize their lives throughout practicing obeying and honoring people who are in the higher position. In Confucius’ concept, a healthy society requires a structured relationship order, the ruler should bring out the good of the follower and the follower is loyal to the upper person; a father will love his son and the son will demonstrate reverence of his father. A husband or a man in any relationship should be good to his wife or his significant other and in return, his wife or significant other should be obedient. An older sibling should take responsibility to his/her younger siblings and the younger one should be respectful of their older siblings. Even friends should be considerate and respectful of each other. In Chinese society culture, these principles have been regulated the relationships among people.

Last but not least, in every Chinese’ education system, learning Confucius’ knowledge, perspective or literary works has been mandatory and require in every school. Confucianism has great impact in East Asia countries include and not limited to Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Parents teach their children all human nature are good, we have to obey elderly’s order, respect our siblings and friends. To the Western culture, the Confucianism is a system that is hard to follow and somehow against their nature of freedom. In Chinese’ critical thinking system, learning from the basic, obeying the person who is in the upper position than ourselves, respecting siblings or friends are what Chinese have been taught since they were born. Even when they study abroad, inside their heart, Confucianism is planted in their mindset and not able to remove it. Over thousands of years, learning Confucianism has been part of Chinese’ responsibility and requirement, Confucius’ center value has impacted Chinese’ critical thinking and natural behavior. However, some people claims that the Confucianism is an evil religion instead of a system because there are temples, institutions and group of followers all around the world to spread Confucianism.

Personally, learning Confucianism has taught us what is the value of being human and what distinguishes us from warm blood beings. Some people might take Confucianism is too soft to help people to face against the bad and some people do claim that human nature is badness instead of goodness. No matter which side people choose to take, it will only tell what is that person’s belief and it does not mean that person’s humanity belongs to bad side. Learning the goodness and badness of humanity is important because people’s perspective will be impacted by their surroundings. What we have to do is to remember to be kind to others, do not harm people intently and know who you really are.

 

Work Cited

Voorst, Robert, Van. Anthology of World Scriptures. Cengage Learning, 2007 P.142-p.167

Confucius’s Educational Theory . NewFoundations, 30 Apr. 2014, https://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Confucius.html

Rajaram, Kumaran. Followers of Confucianism or a New Generation? Learning Culture of. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17 Nov. 2013, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1029151.pdf.

What Are the Five Basic Relationships in Confucianism? . 1 Feb. 2019, https://www.reference.com/world-view/five-basic-relationships-confucianism-e5b27f5c3ca1ff46.

Confucianism - Mencius: The Paradigmatic Confucian Intellectual ... https://www.britannica.com/topic/Confucianism/Mencius-The-paradigmatic-Confucian-intellectual. Accessed 18 Nov. 2019.


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