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An analysis of environmental protection in Rural China

2020-08-11 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- An analysis of environmental protection in Rural China,文章讲述众所周知,中国近年来取得了巨大的经济成就,成为世界第二大经济体。上个世纪,当今中国农村的经济状况发生了巨大变化。由于经济的快速发展,农村地区人民的生活越来越好。但是,很少有人注意到,快速发展的经济成就是基于对生态环境的破坏,例如水污染的不断扩大,水土流失,耕地面积的减少等。

 

An analysis of environmental protection in Rural China

Introduction

As is known to us, China obtains a great number of economic achievements and becomes the second largest economic country in the world in the recent years. The economic conditions of Chinese rural areas nowadays have experienced large changes over the last century. People in rural areas are having better and better life because of the fast economic development. However, few people notice that the fast-developed economic achievements are based on the destruction of ecological environment, such as increasingly expanded water pollution, water and soil erosion, the loss of cultivated area, etc. Many industries hold the idea that economy should be developed first and environmental problems would be dealt with later. Fortunately, with the increasing damage of the environment, more people realize the importance of environmental protection and put the environmental benefits in the first place compared to the economic benefits. Thus, I try to analyze current situations of Chinese rural area and the reasons that arouse those environmental problems, and to put forward some measures to protect environment in Chinese rural area, as well as to introduce the Chinese rural area’s handling achievements from the environmental protection in recent years.

Serious environmental problems in Chinese rural area

In recent years, many Chinese rural areas produce many of environmental problems in order to develop economy. The ecological environment in Chinese rural areas has been suffering destructions in different scales, and the ecological construction cannot follow the speed and power of ecological destruction so that ecological environment quality continues to get worse. Meanwhile, rural environmental pollutions are going increasingly heavy with the development trend from the point pollution to area pollution. Apart from that, there are more and more ecological disasters happening, such as flooding, rainstorm, debris flow and the like. Thus, environmental protection in Chinese rural area is facing more and more challenging.

The ecological destruction in the rural area fails to receive effective restraint and environmental construction cannot surpass the speed and power of the environmental destruction so that ecological qualities and functions continue to deteriorate. In the recent 50 years, masses of cultivated resources have been occupied in order to develop the economy with the construction of irrigation system, reservoir, road, residential house, factory or large garbage dump and it is initially estimated that there are about 33 million hectares of cultivated area lost (Li, 24). Besides, the water and soil loss is still very serious. According to the statistics, there are about one third of cultivated area is being damaged from the water and soil loss, and about 3930 thousand hectares of farmland and 4930 thousand hectares of meadow are endangered with the consequence of desertification (Li, 51). What is worse, the water resources are deteriorating, the ecology of water area is suffering destruction, forests receive serious damage from human beings and meadow is becoming vestigial, getting desertification and alkalization with the speed of two million hectares per year. As a result, biological diversity in Chinese rural area suffers damaged and many species are endangered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Garbage Dump (web 1)

Apart from the continual ecological destruction, environmental pollutions in the rural area are increasingly serious. Environmental pollutions tend to deteriorate from the point pollution to the area pollution. The rural land resources receive a large area of serious destruction that more than six million hectares of farmlands have been polluted by the agricultural chemicals and over eight million hectares of cultivated areas have suffered from the salinization (Liu, 142). A large amount of waste water, waste gas and waste residue from township enterprises are polluting and extending the rural areas from the partial area to the whole area. Meanwhile, lakes in the rural areas tend have eutrophication as a result from the water pollution. The eutrophication can be seen in the following photos. As is recorded, the sanitary sewage is the biggest factor among the factors contributing to the eutrophication, while the industrial wastewater is the second largest and fertilizer is the third largest one. According to a research by Chinese Academy of Sciences, there are more than half of counties where nitrate is over standard in the underground water among 14 counties in Chinese north, indicating that the nitrate pollution to water resources is pretty serious because of the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. Consequently, a huge number of rivers in the village were polluted and became “dead water”. Because of the pollutions, the ecological qualities deteriorate continually and people’s health and life would fail to improve to a large extent.

 

 

 

 

 

Eutrophication (web 2)

With the increasing destruction of environment and ecology, environmental disasters become more and more and environmental protection are facing more challenging problems. In recent years, people in the rural area damaged environment largely in order to pursue high economic benefits so that nature begins to revenge human beings with the frequent disasters. In the rural areas, they would often suffer from huge loss every time the flood and rainstorm fall down. Large areas of cultivated land and farmland were damaged by the soil and sand from those disasters, and large areas of land lose their nutrient contents leading to the large loss of productivity or even wasteland. In addition, natural disasters, including debris flow, landslide and earthquake, could produce groups of refugees and result in large financial loss to a large extent. Apart from the large number of refugees, they would bring strange seasonal variation, unstable cold and hot days, virus variation or epidemic diseases, endangering people’s health and life without doubt.

The factors contributing to environmental destruction in Chinese rural areas

As is known to us that one cannot clap with one hand, there must have many factors leading to the serious environmental problems and destructions in the rural areas. Through my researching, the reasons can be sorted as direct reasons and fundamental reasons. And the author will try to analyze them in detail.

Direct reasons can be owed to human beings’ unreasonable economic activities that produce various kinds of environmental destruction. First of all, farmers pursue fast-developed economic benefits with the smallest cost to obtain the largest benefits. In Chinese rural areas, many farmers did not have reasonable ideas and just wanted to pursue their own benefits as many as possible (The World Bank, 12). Therefore, they exploited the natural resources as much as possible and focused on the current benefits rather than future development. When working on the farming activities, they made use of fertilizers and pesticides largely to enhance the production and resist the insects, which resulted in many environmental problems, such as water and land pollution, lake eutrophication, land solidification, pollution and low quality of agricultural products, etc. According to the statistics, China is a big country of fertilizer that the usage of fertilizer reached 38 million ton in 1996, ranking the first place (Zhang, 62). What is worse, the use ration of fertilizer could only have 30 percent to 35 percent, that is, every year about ten million ton of fertilizers flowed into river, which not only led to large economic loss but also polluted environment to a large extent. With time going on, land qualities deteriorate continually with increasing loss of nutrition elements.

Second, with the process of marketization going on in China, many township enterprises damaged environment largely for the purpose of improving competition and large economic profits. In order to extend the produce scale, many township enterprises occupied cultivated land without reasonable rules (Frederick, 35). Meanwhile, in the rural areas, many enterprises had poor production equipment and technologies that they did not have enough ability to deal with the waste gas, waste water and wasteresidue and to reuse natural resources. It is recorded that there are about 20 percent of enterprises that belong to pollution-type among all the township enterprises, including papermaking, printing and dyeing, electroplating, chemical industry, food processing, metal smelting and oil refining. These enterprises produce lots of pollutions and pour them into rural water, gas and land without any dispose, which become the main sources of rural pollution and even arouse large-scale pollution into area environmental problems. In addition, township enterprises did not have reasonable distribution on the whole and concentrated investment that contributed to widespread sources of pollution, complex types of enterprises and unstable changes.

The two reasons mentioned above are the main direct reasons close to human beings’ direct economic activities, while it is the fundamental reasons that produce serious environmental problems and destructions. Overseeing the situation of rural areas, the fundamental reasons are based on the subjective conditions of the rural areas in China.

Chinese rural areas have poor economic construction and capital support to ensure environmental protection going ahead. As is known to us, the majority of Chinese rural areas are less developed economically, so they have limited investment to deal with environmental problems. Meanwhile, Chinese rural areas do not have enough, high-quality and large-scale environmentally-friendly equipment. Their technologies and skills to protect environment are so limited that efforts on the environmental protection do not acquire good results. We can say, the economic development decides the effectiveness of environmental protection in Chinese rural areas to a large extent. In addition, the staff and bureaus of environmental protection cannot meet the current requirements in the rural areas. In China, rural areas does not have improved teamwork construction and environmental bureaus because of their low development. The poor rural economic conditions and poor environmental bureaus construction restrain environmental protection to a large extent.

The local government’s poor supervision ability of environmental protection results in the low effectiveness of environmental protection. In China, it is the government that plays a large role in protecting environment, while the government should blame for the increasing trend of environmental destruction. First, the government does not have specific division of work to protect environment because of the mixed institution setting. Many environmental institutions does manage the environmental protection but they do not manage well that many of them exceed their own powers or shirk their responsibilities to each other. Second, in the rural areas, many governments have close relationships with the enterprises that they could not implement the laws strongly and thoroughly. In Chinese rural areas, many enterprises are the strong economic support of that area and governments have strong dependence on the enterprises, so governments always do not punish the enterprises to a large extent. Last but not least, some governments do not have realize the importance of environmental protection for the purpose of enhancing the local economic condition. In today’s marketization, it is the competition system that can be witnessed here and there. Governments must have been influenced by such the system that they want to improve their performance regardless of environmental destruction.

Chinese rural areas do not have complete laws and relative regulations of environmental protection. Although many laws about environmental protection have been established in recent years, there are still lack of complete laws to meet the real demand of rural areas’ environmental protection. And rural areas still have problems of implementing environmental laws. As we know, the environmental protection in the rural areas seems to be late compared with that of urban cities, so its basic is still too poor and cannot produce a complete law and regulation system to adapt to the real demand of environmental protection in the rural areas, for example, there are still blanks at the aspect of legislation of environmental pollution prevention, management of poisonous chemicals, radioactive contamination prevention, etc. Except for the aspect of environmental legislation, the vague division of responsibility and overlap of power are the obvious problems as well.

The poor awareness of environmental protection and rapid growth of population in the rural areas contribute to the increasing environmental destruction. Nowadays, the rural areas have a large population of eight hundred million with an increasing speed of 16 million people per year. Such the large population aggravates large pressure of environmental protection, because it contributes to more loss of water and soil. Meanwhile, people in the rural areas have pretty poor awareness of environmental protection. As a result, people damage forests or open up the wasteland without any limitation. Many enterprises discharge their waste water or gas into the environment without any restraint. Also, rural areas do not have high-quality education, which has close relation with the awareness of environmental protection, so it is no wonder that people in the rural areas have poor environmental protection.

The measures to protect environment of Chinese rural areas

Knowing the current situations of environmental protection in Chinese rural areas and the reasons contributing to the environmental destruction, it is pretty significant to take some measures decline or prevent environment destruction in the rural areas. As we all know, environmental construction is a great and meaningful event, which can not only promote the growth of the ecological resources in the rural areas and enhance the ability to prevent disasters and protect people’s life, but also increase the opportunities of employment in the rural areas and thus boost the whole social benefits. On the other hand, considering the complex and poor situations in Chinese rural areas, environmental protection is a very challenging career as well. Therefore, it is valuable to put forward some measures to protect environment in the rural areas, hoping it could be practical and effective for the environmental protection.

Strengthen the economic development and enhance the ability to protect the environment in the rural areas. To tell the truth, it is necessary that healthy ecological environment should be the basic to develop rural economy sustainably (Futian, 210). Also, the development of rural economy decides the environmental protection to a large extent. So to protect environment does not influence the development of economy at all. To develop economy should strengthen the infrastructure construction and organization plus ability construction of environmental protection, and increase the investment of environmental protection. When establishing the infrastructure construction, the rural areas should educate and employ professional staff and have clear punishment and supervision system (Zhang, 91). As for the increasing investment of environmental protection, government should establish practical management system and specialized capital investment for the environment protection.

Chinese rural areas should attach great importance to the science and technology and popularize practical and effective environmental technologies. Only with the great help of science and technology, the rural areas can realize the real situations and basic regulations of environmental problems to take specific measures to each environment problem. Also, only with the advancement of science and technology, rural areas can solve various kinds of environmental problems fundamentally. To achieve such the goals, rural areas should organize professional teams of environmental protection and strengthen ecological research to provide some intelligent supports for the environmental protection. Rural areas should enhance the support for the environment research to solve the serious environmental problems, such as the loss of water and soil, water pollution. Also, it is important to introduce agricultural technologies and organize periodic education of agricultural knowledge. Rural areas should guide farmers to make good use of fertilizers and reduce the fertilizers to pollute the environment.

Rural areas should promote government interference to the environment and construct environment reasonably and scientifically. In Chinese rural areas, government has a great influence on the environmental protection. Governments should restrain environmental pollution strictly by controlling the abuse of fertilizers and agricultural chemicals and supervising township enterprises’ abuse emission of pollutions. As we all know, environmental destructions are large produced by the abuse of fertilizers and agricultural chemicals. Governments should prevent and punish those phenomena that farmers use lots of fertilizers to pursue high economic profits with cost of environment pollution (Epstein, 231). Meanwhile, governments should establish reasonable regulations of producing and using the fertilizers and agricultural chemicals and strengthen the management of the use of fertilizers. In addition, governments should restrain the pollutions from the township enterprises on all the aspects of their production. At the start of the production, the pollutions should be reduced to the maximized extent and the wastes should be dealt with effectively at the end of the production. With the interference of governments, the pollutions in the rural areas can be reduced to a large extent.

Rural areas should establish practical laws about environmental protection and standardize the orders of environmental protection. If there were no complete laws of environmental protection, there would be confused to punish those who have damage environment seriously. With the practical environment laws, people would be afraid to damage environment without any limitation (Han, 101). And governments can have strong legal basis to supervise and punish those who have damage environment. Speaking of legislation, governments should implement the laws thoroughly and form a good circle to protect environment to the largest extent.

Finally, rural areas should enhance the awareness of environmental protection and deepen the education of environmental protection. Rural areas should strengthen the education first, adhering to the idea that the education is regarded as the foundation to protect the environment. Educational institutions in the rural areas should carry out campaigns about environmental protection and organize students to protect environment together as well as enhance the youth’s awareness of environmental protection. Meanwhile, rural areas should strengthen and expand announcement of environment protection. They can make the best of media, including newspaper, broadcast, TV or the Internet. Also, they can organize the villagers to participate in the activities of environmental protection. With the announcement going ahead, people in the rural areas must have realize the importance of environmental protection. In addition, rural areas can establish an environmental protection system that can make all the people in the rural areas participate in. With such the system, rural areas can not only promote the career of environmental protection, but also increase the employment opportunities and solve the employment problem as well.

Conclusion

All in all, environmental situations in Chineserural areas are still pretty serious and challenging. It is important and urgent to take some measures to solve the environmental problems, though such the problems seem to be very complex and difficult. With the increasingly good life today, the awareness of environmental protection is going into people’s hearts. Thus, with people’s efforts to protect the environment, the environmental problems could be solved one day. To solve the problems, Chinese rural areas can strengthen the economic development and application of science and technology. Meanwhile, by the increasing interference of governments, the legislation of environmental protection and increasing awareness of environmental protection, Chinese rural areas would be beautiful gardens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Epstein, M. J. Measuring CorporateEnvironmental Performance"USA, 1996.

Futian Qu Andnico Heerink,Sustainable Resource Use and RuralDevelopment in China,Wageningen Agricultural University,1994.

Frederick, R.Gill,Environmental Remediation Liabilities, Journal of Accountancy, 1995,9.

Han, D. Environmental Protection Act. Beijing: Law Press, 1998.

Liu, Y. Chinese Resources Environment Situation and Sustainable Development. Beijing: Economic Publication, 2001.

Li, Z. Chinese Rural Sustainable Development in 21th Century. Shanghai: Social and Scientific Files Press, 2000.

The World Bank, 1997. Expanding the Measure of Wealth,Indicators of EnvironmentallySustainable Development, Work inProgressfor PublicDiscuss.

Zhang, F. Theory and Countermeasure Selection of Sustainable Development. Beijing: China Economic Press, 2001.

Web 1: October 31, 2014 retrieved from http://www.ecofine.cn/2012/0709/3913.html

Web 2: October 31, 2014 retrieved from http://www.lake.ac.cn/topics_con_1428.html

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