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Changes in Europe's relations with the world from 1400 to 1750

2020-07-27 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文


下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Changes in Europe's relations with the world from 1400 to 1750,文章讲述当我们回顾欧洲以及世界其他地区的历史时,不难发现,直到哥伦布发现“新世界”之前,欧洲与世界之间的互动并不十分广泛。在15世纪末。因此,将发现时代视为里程碑是一个明智的想法。在以下几段中,我将从两个时期来分析欧洲与世界之间的关系,一个时期是发现时代之前的时间,另一个时期是发现时代之后的时间。


Changes in Europe's relations with the world from 1400 to 1750


When we look at the history of the Europe and that of the rest of the world, it is not difficult for us to find out that the interaction between the Europe and the world is not very extensive until the Columbus’s discovery of the “New World” at the end of the 15th centuries. Therefore, it is a sensible idea to see the Age of Discovery as a landmark. In the following paragraphs, I will analyze the relationship between the Europe and the World from two periods, one is the time before the Age of Discovery, and the other is the after.


In the years prior to the Age of Discovery, due to the backwardness of the art of seamanship (including the ships and navigation technology), insufficient geographical knowledge and the shortage of goods and materials, people’s version and acknowledgements were greatly trapped; people knowing nothing about the world beyond the seas. Europeans’ activities are mainly limited to the commercial transactions with merchants from Ancient East, more specifically businessmen from India and China, who gained relatively advanced civilizations then. Europeans relied so badly on those fine merchandises form these ancient civilized countries, including teas, ceramics and spices that a very large amount of their fortune had to be spent on such things. At that time, therefore, the Europeans’ concept of the “World” is quite narrow. For them, the world is no more than a large area in the Far East where people are highly civilized and rich, and goods are delicate and valuable.


Now, let’s take a look at the “unknown continents” at that time, the America (we would talk about Latin America right here). Native people there knew nothing about the outside ether. But the big difference between from them to the Europeans is: they even knew nothing about themselves; leagues in this relatively isolated continent (it is contiguous to neither Europe or Asia or Africa) are so sparsely located that they share totally different behaviors, languages and culture. Lacking mutual communications have hindered the improvement of civilization as well as development of technology in these tribes, which finally led to their humiliated and pathetic history.


When we turn to look at the Europe, however, we found that main countries in Europe are contiguously distributed east and west at almost the same latitude, sharing the same day length and seasonal variations. Endless wars and cooperation between countries in Europe brought the crashes and assimilations of culture, huge development of technology and the embryo of capitalism. Meanwhile, China’s three great inventions, the gunpowder, the compass and the printing technique were brought to Europe by Mongols, which herald the arrival of bourgeois society. Gunpowder completely tore down the Knight Class into pieces; the compass laid a solid foundation for the accurate navigation, make possible the future distant voyages over the seas; printing becomes a prerequisite tool for the popularization of education and the spread of religion all over the world. The long term exchange plays a decisive role in the Europe’s following expansion in the world! Consequently, Europe had acquired far more advanced techniques and knowledge than those in America, which laid the foundation for their further expansion.


Therefore, we can conclude that in the period prior to mid-1500s, the interaction between Europe and the World is confined to the Euro-Asia communication. Also, the status of the Europe is low or passive considering the dominant roles of China and India in commercial as well as cultural activities.


Things changed with the coming of the Age of Discover. Following Columbus’s discovery of the New World come the cruel and bloody interactions between the European Settlers and Natives in the New World. Such brutal relationship derives from settlers’ initial greedy desires for gold and fortune as well as from natives’ weakness and their lag in tools, productivity and culture. From the very beginning, Europeans managed to possess the superiority over the locals; the local people treated them divine and sacred, regarding them as people from heaven, willing to provide everything they had and their unlimited admirations. Meanwhile, the locals’ amiable nature and kindhearted disposition make them subjected to those European settlers in the interaction with them. Such can be obviously reflected in the non-equivalent exchange process.


They even offer it themselves, and show so much love that they would give their very hearts. Whether it is anything of great or small value, with any trifle of whatever kind, they are satisfied. I forbade worthless things being given to them, such as bits of broken bowls, pieces of glass, and old straps, although they were as much pleased to get them as if they were the finest jewels in the world.


Meanwhile, Europeans rhetorically deceived the locals to work and service for them; again, these cunning European settlers take advantage the native’s obedient disposition to gain huge benefits. And when the Indians realized that in fact these people, who came here by ships, having different appearances from them, did not really come from heaven, they begin to repel, although their resistance is very pale, weak and powerless. Their weapons are nothing more than their fists, wooden sticks which are no more powerful than children’s toys, not to mention the firearms. Thus, the only feat waiting for them is to be conquered. An illustration here is that a team of only 180 people leaded by Francisco Pizarro finally conquered the Inca Empire with 600 million people!


Eventually, the Europeans greed and brutality fully emerged, at this time, I am more inclined to describe their relationship to slavery relationship, because then, after numerous brutal massacre (from the statistics, millions of natives have been killed), the rest of the locals are just most obedient and most defenseless survivors, willing to do whatever “their lords” asked them to do. These people have completely become European vassals! Along with the Europe’s capital expansion and exploration in global scale, Europeans’ barbarous savage of resources in those so called “New Continents” also significantly intensified. In this case, countries in Europe have grown from regional countries with limited influence to the leaders in the world with pivotal influences and statuses. Its relationship with the world at this time can be properly regarded as a king processing boundless fields, plantations and subjects. The world was providing necessary and valuable resources, such as metals, to the Europeans, who in turns used guns made from such metals to enslave their providers, kill those objectors and gain more benefits.


There are ranches in Oceania; our herds are in Argentina and North America; Peru sent us their silver; gold from South Africa and Australia flows to London; Indians and Chinese people are grow teas for us, and our coffee, sugar and spice plantations are throughout the East Indies.


From this very point, Europe’s supremacy in the world truly began to emerge.


In a nutshell, by virtue of their accumulated science, technology and capital, countries in Europe eventually grew from the small countries with only regional impacts in the early 15th century, to the world's powerful leaders in just few hundred years after the New World had been discovered, controlling the huge amount of resources in the world.




Christopher Columbus, The Letter of Columbus (1493)

Bartolomé de las Casas, A Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies

Michel de Montaigne, Of Cannibals

Shusaku Endo, Silence



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