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Poetry is a multilayered description of the identity of early Chinese immigrantsA Multi-level Account forEarlyfor Early Chinese Immigrants’ Identity t

2020-06-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- ,文章讲述随着时间的流逝,当今世界在不断变化,科学技术的突破使来自不同国家的人们更加接近。许多人将其视为全球化的趋势,甚至预言将会有越来越多的旅行和学习前往国外,以获得国际经验。过去,人们决定出于不同原因移民到另一个国家,例如追求更好的生活,赚更多的钱,摆脱困境,避免不必要的家庭麻烦等。这些移民后来形成自己的移民是很普遍的。在保留外国文化背景下的某些特征的同时,保留外国文化背景中的身份。这种身份认同在日常生活中可能会引起人们的注意,他们可能并没有意识到自己尚未经历的变化和适应。本文将讨论通过诗歌在20世纪移民到美国的早期中国移民的身份,希望它能提供一些可行的方法。对其他人了解早期中国移民到美国的身份的建议。本文的目的在于,它采取了多层次的方法来探索诗歌中早期中国移民的文化身份,从而可以为诠释文学和早期中国移民提供崭新的视角。

 

Poetry is a multilayered description of the identity of early Chinese immigrantsA Multi-level Account forEarlyfor Early Chinese Immigrants’ Identity through Poetry

 

I. Introduction

Today’s worldisincreasinglymodern and advanced with the passage ofchanging as time goes by time, peopleand people from different countries seem to have closer contact and more frequent communication with each other and theytend to be given more opportunities to keep in touch with foreign people due to the benefits brought by theare brought closer by scientific and technological breakthroughs. Many people have argued that it can be concludedsee it as a trend of globalization and they even predict that there will be more and more people that will go travels toand studiesgheading to inforeign countries in order to to gain an experience the internationalinternational experiencescene in approaching days. Also, people may in the meantime choose togo to foreign countries for other reasons as long as they are given a chance to go to foreign countries. That is to sayIn the past, many people in the past would choosedecided to immigrate to another country for one reason or anotherdifferent reasons, like for pursuing a better life, making more money, getting away from their current hardships, avoiding unnecessary family troubles, etc. It is quite common sense that those immigrants will later formed their own unique identity in the foreign a differentcultural background as they still preservwhile preservinge some characteristics shaped by their own culture when compared with those that are born in that culture. And their sSuch identity performed in daily lives they mightcan be detected more or lessnot be conscious of the changes and adaptations they haven't got through.embodiment of their identity is just a natural thing and they may even notnotice such embodiment on their own at all. Therefore this paper will mainly discuss early Chinese immigrants’ identity through poetry who had immigrated to America in the 20th century, hoping that it can provide some feasible suggestions for other people to learn about the identity of early Chinese immigrants to America. The purpose of this paper lies in that it has taken a multi-level approach to explore the cultural identity of early Chinese immigrants in poems, which can provide a brand-new perspective for interpreting literature and early Chinese immigrants.

The implementation of this dissertation can be actually conducted through choosing some typical early Chinese immigrants and at the same time selecting some classical poems written by those early Chinese immigrants for the vivid and convincing elaboration of the identity of early Chinese immigrants. That is to say, it will explore the identity of early Chinese immigrants through carrying out analysisoftheir written poems. Therefore I will only refer to some typical early Chinese immigrants and select some representative poems of them from my own point of view. With a certain number of early Chinese immigrants and their respective poems chosen, this paper will explore the impact of Chinese traditional culture on those early Chinese immigrants, evaluate the social and historical elements that force immigration through 20th century early Chinese immigrants’ poems and at the same time summarize the diversified cultural identities reflected by those early Chinese immigrants.

The structure of the whole dissertation, as a qualitative study, can be formedcomposed of five chapters. Chapter one The Introduction part deals with the research question as well as the rationales of why conducting a research on it. It will also mention the research objectives, the background and relevant information in this piece ofs research. TheLiterature Review provideChapter two Literature Review provides a paramount view for the present study and demonstrates the current situation in this fieldof relevant area. Moreover, it shows the adequacyof methodology at the same time. Chapter three MethodologyMethodology is concerned with the specific methods that have been taken in this study, which can be further divided into the sociological, psychological and cultural levels as can provide a meaningful and wide interpretation for readers. At thesociological level, it targets at the effect of American society toward those early Chinese immigrants and how those early Chinese immigrants have put such effect into their poetry. At thepsychologicallevel, it mainly analyzes the issue of identity through the selection of words in their poems. At the cultural level, it can reveal the diversity of different countries, which can be beneficial for exploring the nature of those immigrants and why they will change their identity in the end. Chapter four Data findings and analysis will be about the findings of this paper and the analysis of those findings will be supplied in the meantime. The last chapter will be the conclusion of the whole paper, which will briefly review the main content and then provide comprehensive evaluation of findings of the study. Furthermore, it will list the limitations and delimitations of the present study so that it can provide suggested implications for further study.

 

It is rather easy to understand that if early Chinese immigrants’ identity through poetry would like to be studied, then it is a must to find out about the definition of both “identity” and “early Chinese immigrants”. Only when the definitions of “identity” and “early Chinese immigrants” have been establishedtoearly Chinese immigrants’ identity through poetry is researched. Simply speaking, “identity” here means the cultural identity and “early Chinese immigrants” mainly refer to those Chinese immigrants that immigrated to America in the 20th century. As for the definition of cultural identity, it is stated that “identities are conceptually more complex than they may at first appear. From one point of view, they define who somebody is in terms of a trait, which might be anything from, for instance, a physical feature of the body, a belief, a genealogy or a cultural preference. In effect they identify by placing individuals into groups who share that trait. And this has a consequence: it means that identity is won at the place of reducing individuality. ”To put it into this paper, the issue of identity here refers to the specific identity that is shared by that a large group of early Chinese immigrants and those early Chinese immigrants have formed the same trait, which will be explored in detail in the below.

II. Literature Review

With the introduction about the general conditions of the whole paper discussed at length in the above, what follows is the Literature Review part. This part will primarily tackle the past and present papers and studies that are related to my workthis paper in one way or another so that it can help better explain the research problem and readers can better understand it in the meanwhile.

The reason of immigration during the early 20th century is complex and long discussed by scholars. Gao (2012) stated that social and historical elements which forced those immigrating activities through 20th century resulted in variation of early Chinese immigrants’ poems vary from person to person. He also specified some of the typical social and historical elements causing immigration during the 20th century: disordered society filled with wars; frequent change in government authorities; China’s semi-colonial and semi-feudal history, and other unfavorable conditions (Gao, 2012). This explains the reasons why some Chinese were searching for a better life as they were disappointed by the situation in China. For them, there was no hope for China at that moment and they were hurrying to get away from the hardships they suffered as soon as possible. Gao explainsabout the waves of immigration during the 20th century to the US, a country without war and full of opportunities. Besides, Wang (2015) also mentioned that it was because of the frustration about China’s situation with no promising future to be seen at that time which urged people to immigrate to America. The rationale of early immigration lied in the fact that people were fed up with life being bullied and the possibility of war at any unexpected moments. They hated being a state of anxiety all day and were almost suffocated now and then, eager to get away from such a terrible condition so that they could begin a new life as ordinary people.

When they came to America, Chinese immigrants could finally say goodbye to the past and greet their new country, accompanying identity confusion. Shuang (2015) states that it worked better for early Chinese immigrants who simply shifted their identities than those who developed both who initiated the process ofidentity negotiation of American and Chinese. Identification is not directly connected toa sense of belonging. Rather, those who adapt to the local culture when navigating cultural boundaries could achieve access in culture negotiation (Mary, 2013).This provides an effective approach for studying the identity of immigrants, but it fails to take the historical situation of these immigrants into account. From the sociological perspective, Otis (2001) targets the importance of bridging specific and collective identities for achieving the government resources. Even though it finds the importance of both identities, it does not provide an effective solution for such situation. Additionally, it considers the issue of gender, politics and ethnicity, but its topic is limited context and historical issues. In other words, Otis reveals the identity in an organized institutions and the impact of other social elements on it.

During the process of conducting the research, it can be found that the respective researches about either identity or early Chinese immigrants are really more than those that have combined the researches about both the identity and early Chinese immigrants. To put it into more specifically, the poetry written by early Chinese immigrants were very few preserved, thus a rather precious source. Most literature collected in all the three corpuses mentioned above is about the issue of early Chinese immigrants from different perspectives. In addition, only two books involve these poems, including Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910-1940 and The Heath Anthology of American Literature, 1000. Therefore, it adopts the qualitative and descriptive approach to review these poems written by early Chinese immigrants in order to explore the characteristics and main topics of these poems. Zhou and Kim (2001), on the other hand,exploredtheir identity historically. Their study provides a synchronic approach to study the issue of identity and the insightful analysis proves that the “too assimilated” feature lead to the powerlessness of these Chinese immigrants, which attached much attention to the new and old elite groups in the broader Chinese American community.

Early Chinese immigrants in America are confronted with unexpected situation and what they actually encounter is that they were detained in the Angel Island. Looking through the poems of these early Chinese immigrants, it can be found that there are some poems written in gracious language and written in high skills but there are also some that are composed with many grammatical mistakes. From which it could be concluded that not all early Chinese immigrants have received higher education and some of them are simply having problems in dealing with the language. Baca has in his book also added that the immigrants’ poems can be regarded as the highlight of the special living environment and complex emotions of those early Chinese immigrants toward both China and America (Baca&Santiago, 1990). In the immigrants’ poems, the unstable emotion, the tough living situation and the fresh experience not only involve a complex cultural background of the poetry writers but also they will introduce a new perspective about life attitude for readers. If one read the poems by these early Chinese immigrants carefully, he/she will unconsciously grow empathy towards the writers, feeling the desolation and desperation between the lines. Such empathy audiences feel can be further divided into the following three categories.

III. Methodology

This part will mainly be concerned with the specific methods that have been taken in this study, which can be further divided into the cultural, sociological, and psychological levels as can provide a meaningful and wide interpretation for readers. In terms of qualitative approach, this thesis will mainly focus on several early Chinese immigrants who had came to America in the 20th century and have written poems which represents the common thoughts and identity on all three levels. After choosing these typical poets, the poems they created will be analyzed to find out about the identity of Chinese immigrants in the US during the 20thcentury. The reason of the composition remains to be explored in this section as well. To be more specific, all three levels have different targets and approach. On the sociological level, it targets at the effect of American society toward early Chinese immigrants and how those early Chinese immigrants reflect these in their poetry. Onthe psychological level, it mainly analyzes the issue of identity through the selection of words. At the cultural level, it discusses the diversity among different countries, which can be beneficial for exploring the nature of immigrants and how they changed in the end.

 

3.1 The Sociological Perspective

From the sociological perspective, immigrants were suffering from great social pressure and were striving to make a living in America, and such hardship led to their creation of poetry. Such social background would help us understand the context of the poems and why do the poets express such thoughts.

TheU.S.published a series of unequal clauses against Chinese immigrants without taking any regard of their contributions made to the society upon their arrival. This includes building the transcontinental railroad, developing the shrimp and abalone fisheries, etc. Also, the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 seriously undermined the rights of early Chinese immigrants in many ways. Therefore, thewritings of these Chinese immigrants serves an example of how language reflect class and race conflict in America, and also as a tool of opposition to such unfair treatment.

The sociological reasons that a great number of Chinese immigrated to America can be divided into the domestic factors and foreignfactors. The unpleasant situations in the domestic China as well as the appealing circumstances in the abroad countries can be used to account for the immigration behaviors of those early Chinese immigrants. In the first beginning of the early Chinese immigration, the domestic environment was rather complex in that the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party were struggling with one another in order for the central power. There is no doubt that under the fierce competition between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party, the whole China would tend to be in a total mess so that the unrest domestic environment will force many Chinese to go abroad to pursue a better life. Moreover, the current Chinese economy was sluggish and the prosperous illusions toward America will undoubtedly drive them to go abroad to get themselves out of countless pains and sufferings in China. Those early Chinese immigrants hoped to try their best to strive for their better future life.

As of the foreign factors, U.S.hadconsidered China as its military and economic enemy and had been hindering the large flow of Chinese immigrants to come to its country during the 20th century. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was just one of the unequal treatments and there were many other unequal treatments set up by the American society in order to bully those early Chinese immigrants. Besides, the U.S. government did not allow Chinese males to bring their wives to U.S., nor can they marry Americans. Immigrants are facing great pressure providing for their family and themselves. This creates dissatisfaction and social identity crisis among these immigrants. As a result, a great number of poems written by those early Chinese immigrants have shown their ambition to revitalize China and they symbolize themselves as the traditional heroes. These complicated social elements are beneficial for the interpretation of the inner activities of those early Chinese poets.

 

3.2 The Psychological Perspective

 

At the psychological level, immigrants had gone through great emotional changes when they came and settle in the U.S., presumably from full expectations to deep disappointments. Furthermore, such emotional changes can be viewed through the medium of their choice of words.

Scholarclaims that the spirits can be divided into two groups, including conscious ego and unconscious ego. The former consists of memory and is successive (Christiana 2010).Hebelieves that ego only takes a tiny part of psyche and the unconsciousness is much more important. The literature of one person is “amenable to analysis” since people recognize them as a “symbol” of the author’s mind. The scholars’thoughts can be used here for analyzing the psychological idealsof poets. Through selection of words,which are basic unit of meanings, wereaderscan understandthe unconsciousness of the poets. That is to say, different early Chinese immigrants have their own habits and preferences of word use and their emotions can be viewed through this channel.

Words tend to betray inner activities of authors and can reflect the positive and negative directions of their emotions (Christiana, 2010). Moreover, each language community is subject to their own selection of tendency.Although there are some grammatical mistakes in their work, itdoes not influence our understanding of the poems. In other words, the word selection and grammatical forms can reflect the psychological activity of poets (Koji 2011). As a result, it enables us to recognize the feelingsof individualpoets through their word selection, which complements the demerits of the sociological approach whichignores the distinction between Chinese immigrants. It could be concluded that the analysis of early Chinese immigrants’emotions and feelings through their poetry from the psychological perspective is more of an analysis of individuality of early Chinese immigrants which is conducted through analyzing the sections of writings.

 

3.3 Application of Poems by Early Chinese Immigrants as Examples from Cultural Perspective

From the cultural perspective, poems by early Chinese immigrants reflect theirtrue identity, which is another level of analysis. If sociological influencesare the exterior towards those early Chinese immigrants, then we can say thatcultural influencesare interior.

Each and every nation shapes their own unique culture, which is different from that of others in one way or another, creating diversity among different countries. It is common that when one leaves his/herhomeculturefor another different one, only to find him/herfacinga cultural conflict, or cultural shock as a result of diversity. People can sooner or later adjust to a new environmentby gradually learning from its culture. Ironically, people may experience the cultural conflict or cultural shock again when they goback to their home countrysince they have well adjusted to a new culture already. In both ways, they feel uneasy. For these immigrants, their choice of leaving China was not a long-term plan, but rather a sudden decision due to the domestic upheavals. They were not fully prepared and didn’t know much of the foreign language at all. It is only to be expected that they were experiencinga much larger extent of cultural shock when they came to the U.S.

To examine the cultural influence, we will look at the wordings and cultural context of the poems. For example, many poems are written in Cantonese, as many immigrants were from the region of Canton or Fujian, and did not know English very well. Although they were already working and living in America, they true cultural perspective were, at that time, still belonging to Chinese culture. From deep inside, they preferred expressions of Chinese spelling and pronunciation.Even their rhymes were matching in Chinese, not in English. Therefore, it could be concluded that culture is what one can fit well into through personal adjustment and it can result in complete different ways if one leaves his/her own home culture in a sudden.

 

IV. Data Findings and Analysis

In this section, poems of early Chinese immigrants in the 20th century are analyzed from sociological, psychological and cultural approaches. At the sociological level, it targets at how the American society treated them and how those early Chinese immigrants reflected such social pressure in their works. At the psychological level, it mainly analyzes the individual emotional elements through the selection of words in their poems. At the cultural level, it reveals the cultural influences on the nature of immigrants and the alternation of their identity.

 

4.1 Sociological Perspective

During the 19th century to 20th century, Chinese labor flourished into the US and their help on exploring the new frontier were initially favored. They built railroads, tamed desserts, and brought advanced agriculture and fisheries to the Wild West. Statistics show that almost 25% of the entire work force in California by 1852 was Chinese(Polster, 2000). However, the fast growth of Chinese labor in the US was soon conflicting with the issue of local workers who demanded high salaries and longer holidays. To white labors, their jobs were taking away by outsiders and they were struggling with hatred. Therefore the movement of anti-Chinese started and a social exploitation of workers put them against each other. Law enforcement and sentiment followed, as the famous 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act put many away behind bars (Polster, 2000).

What encouraged them to come to the U.S., apparently, was the economic opportunities and bright future they imagined:

Instead of remaining a citizen of China, I willingly became an ox. 

I intended to come to America to earn a living.

Here, the author was willing to come to America and work as an ox in order to improve his life, thinking that America was a land of opportunities and social mobility. The sociological factor here is clearly established.

However, what they did not predict was that the country that once welcomed them turned its back on them and put them away as prisoners. Some immigrants’ poems described the situation and expressed self-mocking humor.

As a poet wrote:

My belly brims with discontent, two numerous to inscribe on bamboo slips.

This sarcastically reflects how these immigrants came to the U.S., hoping to realize the ‘American dream’, while U.S. immigrant officials treated them as prisoners in the Angel Island. At the beginning of the detention, these early Chinese immigrants could not accept the reality. However, long-term tortures on both body and mind forced them to adapt. As a result, they had to accept the cold fact:

Dont say that everything within is Western styled.

Even if it is built of jade, it had turned into a cage.

Chinese immigrants were angry and unsatisfied with how they were treated. As one stanza goes:

Before you could fulfill your ambition, you were buried beneath clay and earth.

I know that even death could not destroy your ambition.

This demonstrate the patriotism of the poet and his helplessness when distained in the Angle Island. In this poem, the poet’s ambition is so strong that even death cannot block the way of pursuing the ambition. And it was also due to the existence of the ambition that motivates the early Chinese immigrant to immigrate to America without taking any regard of the difficulty along the process. But what was out of their expectation is that what they encounter in America is maltreatment and they have no chance to put their ambition into reality at all.

Such disappointment and denial was shown in many other poems (Polster, 2000):

I will not speak of love when I level the immigration station!

An advantageous position for revenge will surely come one day.

I will certainly behead the barbarians and spare not a single blade of grass.

Here, the poet claims that he would not speak of love. He also mentioned revenge that would come one day when he would behead the barbarians who put him into such suffering. The disappointment in this poem so obvious that readers can understand what the poet had gone through physically.

 

4.2Psychological Perspective

Psychologically, some of the immigrants’ poems expressed their hope and patriotism. Early immigrants who were suffering from an uncomfortable situation missed their homeland badly. They compared themselves to heroes in Chinese classics and hoped the Chinese government in power would be prosperous and strengthened. Meanwhile, they used poems to encourage themselves to overcome such difficulties.

The wordings of poems can reveal individuality and personality of different poems, including how they feel, what they hope for, and why they write these poems.

Often, the word “I” is abundantly used in these poems, which is beneficially to express the subjective feelings. Some poems are written in plain language from the first person perspective, showing a sense of nostalgia:

Needless extravagance leads youth to ruin.

All my compatriots should be mindful.

Once you have some small gains, return home early.

Take this poem an example.The words “ruin”, “compatriot” and “early” showasense of nostalgia. “Ruin” means hispassion had disappearedand replaced by giantdesperation. The word “compatriot” refers toChinese at home and those abroad like themselves and the poet was recalling a sense of belonging. Even though the poetwas experiencing hardships and unequal treatments, hedid not want his “compatriot” to be worried about him. The word “early” expresses their impatience of returning back to China. This shows the psychological change that the poetbegan to thinkhis coming to America was a waste of youth. Like many others, he did not obtain what he hoped forbutended up being treated as a prisoner.

Similar feelings are also shown in below:

The dragon out of water is humiliated by ants, the fierce tiger who is caged is baited by a child.

As long as I was imprisoned, how can I dare to strive for supremacy?

An advantageous position for revenge will surely come one day.

Here, “dragon” stands for “China” and“ants” stands for the aggravators that were trying to exploit China and were treating these poets in an unequal way. Furthermore, the fierce tiger and the child play the same role as dragon and ants respectively. In this poem, the poet parallels with powerful and brave image with China and they hoped the prosperous home countrycouldsupport them and free them from the jail. The emotion expressed here is a sense of humiliation with a flicker of hope that one day he may revenge.

Others feeldesperate, which was shown in each line of theirpoems:

The wild goose messenger cannot find its way.

I have been detained and obstacles have been put my way for half a year.

The former sentence that the wild goose messenger cannot find its way just suggests the disillusion of what he used to hope for. It was actually the disillusion which made the poet unable to decidewhat to do afterwards as he has lost the direction ormotivation for life in America, causing his feeling of desperation. Consequently, poets have no choice but to express their desperation through their poems, making it the only channel of psychologicalrelief. Throughout poems, these poor immigrants could find relief in literature and escape the reality that they were not welcomed but treated unfairly by the U.S. (Bernard and Nancy, 1997).

 

4.3Cultural Perspective

The cultural shock and conflict is further reflected in the poems as they demonstrate how such influence affectsthewording and structure of creation.

Some applies the classical Chinese story and refer to it in the poem:

Even though Su Wu was detained among the barbarians, he would one day return home.

When he encountered a snow storm, Wengong sighed, thinking of bygone years.

Su Wu was a famous person in Chinese historythat experienced a miserable life in foreign countries while being away from his own country. The poet took himself as Su Wu and they had the strong will that they can leave the prison and come back to China one day. In this approach, the poets not only expressed his cultural identity as a Chinese but also put what he experienced as a temporary hardship which a hero must endure.

When talking about the imagination of American culture and their home culture, the poem says:

From now on, I am departing far from this building.

All of my fellow villagers are rejoicing with me.

Here, the phrase “depart from this building” indicate the day that the author chose to step away fromhis home culture and the phrase “all of my fellow villagers” mean all those early Chinese immigrants who came to America together with the poet. Their initial response was great expectations for the new culture and therefore rejoiced.

However, they began to feel uncomfortable because of the cultural shock, losing their identity:

The low building with three beams merely shelters the body.

It is unbearable to relate the stories accumulated on the Island slopes.

A lot of Chinese cultural elements were also included in the poems as a subconscious reveal of identity. For example, symbols of Chinese traditional festivals:

Four days before the QiQiao Festival,

I boarded the ship for America.

The QiQiao Festival is a Chinese traditional festival. On the day when people were in a happy festival atmosphere, the poet left his hometown for America. Written ina cold jail of America, the poem reveals his confusion about the cultural identity. The poet represents those who were lost and did not understand why they choose to pursuesuch a miserable life instead of a happy life at home. It shows that these immigrants had lost their ambition and hope towards current situation, feeling alienated and nostalgia. Their original American dream for freedom and a better life now seemed ridiculous.

Furthermore, some poets blamed everyone and everything except for themselves, which is quite opposite to those who were still patriotic toward their homeland. Brimmed with regret and hopelessness, a poet wrote:

 One should know that when the country is weak, the people’s spirit dies.

Why else do we come to this place to be imprisoned?

They had lost their courage and failed to encourage themselves to fight for their freedom, instead they couldn’t handle the culture shock wrapped around their life.

 

Therefore, the data findings of poetry by various early Chinese immigrants can be viewed from above. By evaluating the social and historical elements which caused immigration during the 20th century and how it affected early Chinese immigrants’ poems, we can reveal the diversified cultural identities. Meanwhile, previous studies are quite limited and should put more efforts on elaboration of the identity issue through analyzing poetry by early Chinese immigrants.

 

4.4Discussion of Analysis, Advantages and Disadvantages

Goffman classified identity into the following three sections: social identity, personal identity and ego identity(Andrew et. al. 2007). Taking such categories with these poems into account, each fits with the level of analysis. Firstly, their social identity was trampled for being held up in prison as immigrants who lost their future economically and politically due to sociological reasons. What’s more, for personal identity, the pitifuland depressed emotion mentioned above shows that they went through troubles and could not identify their old self. Finally, as of the ego identity, they were only able to express their thoughts through the medium of poems because their social identity and personal identity have both been harmed. Struggling with fate and disappointment, the only thing they could do was to write these poems on the wall while going through the interrogations of American officers again and again. In return, this led to aworse mood, which made them less confident and aggravated their sense of alienation.In the meantime, the chosen poems are the most representative ones among all, which completes a series of nice samples to be discussed.

Discussion of advantage and disadvantages on analysis can give an objective examination of chosen poems in order to offer detailed indication on future researches. Speaking of the advantages, thechosen poems fitin the categories of three levels of methodology so that the identity of early Chinese immigrants in the 20th century can be well illustrated.As of the disadvantages,only a small number of related poems written by early Chinese immigrants can be found nowadays, even after a long period of time and much energy has been spent on the search. Therefore,the small size of sample cannot fully represent and help us fully analyze the majority of early Chinese immigrants in the 20th century.

 

V. Conclusion and Recommendation

By adopting a multi-level approach to analyze the poems written by the early Chinese immigrants, this article explores the identity of poets from sociological, psychological and cultural perspectives. The sociological level provides the historical background and reveals the motives of these poets for immigrating to America. The psychological level highlight the inner activities of these poets through the word selection and grammatical forms (Ann et. al. 2007), which are not only common characteristics but also the individual distinctions (Ian 2002). The cultural level extracts the emphasisof study from poetry styles and shifts to symbols in these poems. In a word, the results achieved from the three levels can provide an insightful analysis for the identity of these poets. To sum up, the identity of those early Chinese immigrants in the 20th century can be indicated from the poems. Meanwhile, the detailed identity shown in the poems can be summarized as follows: the disillusion of the American dream under social pressure, emotions like nostalgia and desperation, and self ego under cultural conflicts.

For recommendation, two issues are to be addressed. Firstly, the number of samples is quite small for the better elaboration of the issue of identity in early Chinese immigrants, calling for more efforts in the future. Researches can be carried out through choosing a larger number of poems from more poets so that the issue can be analyzed more thoroughly and comprehensively. Secondly, there are also many other factors as can reflect the identity of Chinese immigrants. This means that other mediums worth studying. For example, department member in National University of Singapore Wong mentioned that factors that can indicate the issue of identity of a person have actually been really numerous, such as language use, word choice, life style, attitude toward others and so on (Wong, 2013).That is to say, a person’s identity can be directly or indirectly shown to others through many aspects but not only limited in his/her poetry. One’s poetry can only partially indicate his/her identity but cannot fully demonstrate the complete identity of a certain person. In future studies, it is suggested that other mediums, such as documents on Chinese immigrants, videos, or audio files could be combined with the analysis of poetry to achieve better result in discovering identity.

 

 

 


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