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The media, the audience and the public

2020-06-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- The media, the audience and the public,文章讲述英国的媒体业相当发达,与公众也有密切的关系。在英国,报纸,书籍,杂志,电视,广播和各种各样的音频和视频几乎遍布各地的人们的生活中。由于英语在当代国际交流中的主导地位,因此英国在全球社会中发挥了特定作用。英国的英语媒体产品和节目几乎无处不在,并拥有牢固的地位。随着科学技术的发展,大众传媒不仅为公众提供新闻和娱乐,而且成为创造财富的重要手段,这是GDP的重要贡献。人们受到大众媒体和广播业的影响。在一定程度上,受众可以转变为公众。本文旨在探讨媒体,受众和公众之间的关系,包括五个部分。第一部分介绍了英国的媒体情况。第二部分讨论了受众与公众之间的关系。第三部分分析了媒体文化如何影响公共领域。第四部分探讨了媒体,受众和公众的责任。第五部分是全文的结论。

 

The media, the audience and the public

 

 

1. Introduction

Media industry is quite developed in the United Kingdom, which also has a close relationship with the public. In the United Kingdom, newspapers, books, magazines, television, radio and all kinds of audios and videos appear in people's lives almost everywhere. Due to the dominance of English in contemporary international exchanges and the UK has played a specific role in the global community. British media products and programs in English occupy almost everywhere, and enjoy a firm position. With the development of science and technology, mass media not only provides the public with news and entertainment, but also becomes a crucial means to create wealth, which is an important contributor to GDP.

People are influenced by mass media and broadcasting industry. Under certain extent, audiences can be transformed into publics. This essay is aimed to explore the relationships among media, audiences and publics, which contains five parts. The first part introduces the media situation in the United Kingdom. The second part discusses the relationship between audiences and publics. The third part analyzes how media Culture influences the public sphere. The fourth part explores the responsibilities of media, audience and publics. The fifth part is a conclusion to the whole essay.

2. Media in the United Kingdom

2.1 Categories of British Mass Media

Media in the United Kingdom can be divided into three parts: news agency, radio and television and Newspapers, periodicals, books.

In the first place, there are mainly three national news agencies. Reuters was established in 1850, one of the world's major news agencies, headquartered in London with branches and journalists all over the world. News Agency was founded in 1868, jointly operated by four companies, specializing in providing public relations and investment information for the United Kingdom and Canada. AFX News Ltd. was jointly operated by the AFP and the "Financial Times" to provide information services to European financial sectors and the business communities, setting up branches in Europe, the United States and Japan and headquartered in London. (Xue, 2004)

In the second place, there are 4 radio and television companies in the country. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was set up in 1922. In the British radio, BBC has so far maintained a dominant force, embracing coverage of 56 percent of the total population, its program output accounted for 30 percent of all radio programs. In addition, BBC not only produces television programs, but also produces radio programs, which has a global audience. In addition, there are commercial independent television companies like ITV, SKY and BSB TV station. (Xue, 2004)

In the third place, the country has more than 1400 kinds of newspapers and 12 national newspapers. There are more than 7,000 kinds of magazines. BBC Pro Publications International Ltd., not only has television, radio, but also has books, magazines, audio and video products. Reading, reading is an indispensable way of British leisure entertainment and an important source of information. (Len, 2004)

2.2 Self-discipline of British Media

Although the media limitation in UK by the law is not much, it is still not easy to avoid criminal and civil legal liability. Every year, the editors of the media spend a lot of time and energy on solving the legal problems caused by the investigations and reports. The main media in the UK employ experienced lawyers, who can provide legal space for sensitive issues at any time. All media reporters have to conduct legal training, as far as possible to make the media to avoid unnecessary legal issues. (Wu and Lin, 2005)

In general, media industry in the UK is a dynamic and strong economic industry in rapid development, but the control of behaviors by the law and the government is also widely existed. In today's media developed capitalist society, audience is the main driving force of the media, and the purpose of the control is to make it more in line with social norms and more conducive to the development of social stability.

2.3 Media Research in the United Kingdom

Since the 90's, media and cultural studies have gradually become popular in the UK. More and more institutions of higher education have established the Department of Media and Cultural Studies and awarded the relevant degree. This also conforms to a new trend of the western higher education. The establishment basis for the department is study field rather than the traditional disciplines. (Len, 2004)

The news itself is a practical work, which needs a vocational training. The training of the media criticism research is very important for the cultivation of excellent and outstanding media practitioners. Most media professional undergraduates hope to find a job in media industry after graduation. Therefore, this is an attractive industry with a prosperous future.

3. The Relationship between Audiences and Publics

3.1 Definition of Audiences and Publics

In society, the audience is a part of the mass media. The audience refers to a combination of readers, listeners and viewers, which has the basic characteristics of the mass media audience. These features are more scattered, miscellaneous, anonymous and free contact, and space and disseminator of phase separation. In addition to the basic features of social groups and the general mass media audience, the audience has its own, specific and unique characteristics of reception of all kinds of information. (Xu, 2012)

The publics refer to the sum of individuals, groups or organizations, which is related to the specific public relations subject. The publics also refer to organizations, groups, or individuals that have a good relationship with the subject of public relations. (Livingstone, 2005)

In accordance with the importance of the publics to the organizations, the publics can be divided into two parts: primary publics and secondary publics. On the one hand, primary publics are those who have the most frequent contact with the organization and closest relationships with the organization. They are most concerned about the current situation with the most influential function, including employees, shareholders and consumers. On the other hand, secondary publics refers to those who have an important role in the survival and development of the organization, but their role is not important than primary publics, such as the government public, the media and the social public.

3.2 The relationship between Audiences and Publics

Audiences are the important part of publics. The psychological change will severely influence the attitudes of the publics. One important factor is public opinion about a certain incident.

Public opinion is the specific public expression opinions and attitudes of different incidents of the public a specific in a certain time and space. People tend to have emotions about these incidents. It is a kind of social evaluation and a reflection of the social psychology. In order to define the public opinion, there are many difficulties. A simple definition is that public opinion is a collection of personal opinions, attitudes, and beliefs that are expressed by a considerable number of people in a society for a particular topic. It also refers to the individual or group's self-language and opinions on a certain event that influence people's thinking and action. (Mccombs, 2014)

Public opinion has the following five characteristics. In the first place, public opinion is a common opinion from ordinary people, which has obtained favor and support from the majority of people. In the second place, public opinion is always a question of social well-being and happiness. Thirdly, public opinion itself is reasonable. Fourthly, public opinion is effective, which can promote or hinder the opinions in the society. Fifthly, public opinion is not generally the opinion of the government, while it is the voice of the general public. (Mccombs, 2014)

Public opinion, as a kind of social evaluation, is a reflection of social psychology, which is based on the public interest. It has a lot of unique personalities with specific performance in openness, public nature, urgency, broadness and evaluation. (Li, 2009)

With the public opinion, the audience’s point of view will become the idea of the public. Therefore, the ideas of an incident have been transferred to all people of the society. Public opinion is a common psychological phenomenon of individuals or groups in the community. It can not only constraint behaviors of individuals or groups, but also encourage individuals or groups to express their own ideas.

3.3 Report of London Subway Terrorist Attack

London Subway Booming in 2005 refers to a series of bomb terrorist attacks in London which targeted ordinary people, making use of the metro system during the rush hour in the morning. On the morning of 7 July 2005, four Islamist terrorists separately exploded three bombs in a succession on London subway trains across the city. After a while, the fourth bomb was exploded on a bus in Tavistock Square. The result of the incident is that 52 civilians were dead and more than 700 were injured in the terrorist attacks. This is the worst terrorist incident in the United Kingdom since Lockerbie bombing in 1988 as well as the country's first Islamist suicide attack. (Briginshaw, 2005)

After the incident, the reporters and the satellite TV broadcast vehicles rushed to the scene in ten minutes, carrying out the interactively graphic and live coverage and satellite TV reporting, which shows the reaction of British media in the face of public emergencies. Shortly after the bombings on the London underground and short investigation, British police permits the BBC TV as representatives of the media into center field area to shoot scenes and share the obtained image data with other media. Through the media, people from the world have known what happened. (Liu, Wang and Tang, 2015)

Firstly, the report makes the audience aware of the terrorist risk. The social risk is a concept of psychology and also a phenomenon of societal construction. Risk in essence is subjective and based on the perception of human beings. The report of the incident has made the citizens of the United Kingdom aware of the potential risk and the concept of social security is much stronger after the incident. Therefore, risk is a subjective attitude and the attitude will influence the behaviors of people.

Secondly, the report has made the audience and the public more familiar with the dangerous incidents. Before the 7 July 2005 London bombings incident, the dangerous level of terrorist attacks is not very clear and the concept of terrorist attacks is opaque. People don’t know terrorist attacks could make such huge casualties and economic losses. After the incident, the classification of terrorist is very clear in people’s mind. Some risks are very clear because people have witnessed the outcome of these risks and people will be cautious about these risks.

Thirdly, with the report from the mass media, the concept of risks is formed in the public, so people could change their behaviors and formulate more regulations to avoid these errors in the future. To some extent, there were a lot of mistakes and errors and this tragedy could be avoided. After the incident, the government has strengthened the security work and put more labor and equipment to ensure such attacks not happened again.

4. Media Culture Influences the Public Sphere

4.1 Definition of Public Sphere

Public sphere means the private interests and national rights in the field of space and time both between a civil society and in the daily life, where individual citizens gather together to discuss their concerns of the public affairs, forming something close to a consensus of the public opinion, and organizing public power form against the arbitrary and oppressive countries in order to safeguard the overall interests and public welfare. (Habermas, 2005)

The public sphere of administration and political science refers to the content of social life which is corresponding to the civil society, and is the core of the public sector. It is characterized by non-commutative. (Habermas, 2005)

The public sphere has three kinds: the public sphere of ancient Greece, the public sphere of representatives and the public sphere of the citizens.

Firstly, for the public sphere of ancient Greece, this is the embryonic form of the public sphere, because it has not yet formed a certain binding force.

Secondly, for the public sphere of representatives, this is a symbol of privilege in the feudal society period. During this period, there is the cultural mechanism of the sacred festivals and churches, highlighting the feudal rulers of the unrest.

Thirdly, for the public sphere of the citizens, this is the public sphere of the bourgeoisie, which marks the emergence of modern society, the emergence and development of modernity.

There are some differences between the public sphere of representatives and the public sphere of the citizens. Firstly, in the public and private issues, the public sphere of representatives doesn’t clarify the public issues and the private issues, while the public sphere of the citizens clarify the public issues and the private issues. Secondly, in the form of discourse, the public sphere of representatives only listens to the monarch, while the public sphere of the citizens allows people to discuss. Arbitrary forms of discourse are replaced by fair dialogue. Thirdly, in the perspectives of the cultural mechanism, the public sphere of the citizens creates a literary public sphere. The mechanism of literature public sphere has salon, cafe and literary group. Literature is served as an intermediary. On the one hand, it provokes a private sphere. On the other hand, it connected to the public.

The public sphere is closely connected with all people in the society, which allows people to express their ideas.

Freedom of speech is often regarded as an indispensable concept in modern democracy. In this concept, it is considered that it should not be examined by the government. However, the country may punishment is still some destructive expression types, such as obvious inciting rebellion, slander, released secrets related to national security and so on. Almost all countries will be related to the contents of the freedom of speech in the constitution. However, due to some reasons known to all, freedom of speech gradually evolved as a fuzzy concept. Different regions in the world are endowed with different meanings. People have doubts about the freedom to express their views, which may not be afraid of the government's punishment. When a person expresses an unpopular opinion, he or she may have to face the contempt of their community, or even suffer a violent reaction. (Baker, 1989)

4.2 Media Culture Influences the Public Sphere

Modern society is an information society. The public society and public opinion have played an important role in social stability and development, and the media has an irreplaceable responsibility in this regard.

In the progress of civilization in modern society, the supervision and restriction of political power and other powers give the news media a sacred duty. The mass media is one of the effective ways to restrict power, and it is the most important performance of the democratic system in the field of discourse. In a country, the function mainly manifests for supervision by public opinion, which refers to criticisms of government agencies or government officials from the citizens or the news media. (Pang, 2009)

It should be pointed out that the power of public opinion expressed by modern media has an unprecedented impact on the public power supervision and public opinion in the social order. The social public system is very large in a country and public affairs are extremely complex in the relationship between the people and the government. Public power’s characteristic of monopoly and information asymmetry determines that it is difficult for people to implement direct and effective supervision. Coupled with the impact of some of the bad atmosphere in society in recent years, it has made the political enthusiasm of people continue to decrease. People are generally indifferent to politics unless when the public power touches their own interests. Therefore, in general, public opinion can maintain social supervision over public power and pressure.

The news media is in contact with the public opinion because of its communication activities, especially through public opinion to the government decision-making and the supervision and control of the power. Media provides a modern tool to upload public opinion. The public and the public groups can be issued through the media to influence public opinions. This is a manifestation of democracy. In addition, the modern media reports on the actions of the governing bodies and officials, is to make it an important condition for the supervision of public opinion. And modern media is served as a public-oriented media, which can become a public forum. The supervision by the media as an intermediary is one of the important ways to restrict the power in the modern democratic politics. (Pang, 2009)

The democratic political construction in modern society highlights the position and function of the media. From the theoretical level, the media supervision is just one part or form of public opinion to provide the public with freedom of speech channel or right and obligation. But in today's circumstance, the media rights and government power is often combined together that the party and government behavior is in a disguised form of public opinion in the form of supervision. The combination of the media supervision and the supervision of public opinion are easily mixed, especially when the media supervision and the opinion of the government and power gather together, making the media supervision sometimes appears vacancy and offside.

The news media in a tool in modern democracy can serve as public participation in decision-making to comment on public affairs, fully focusing on public attention around major issues shaping public opinion. Therefore, in this context, in addition to support public opinion on the supervision of the public sphere, the state should avoid the excessive interference of public sphere as far as possible. (Pang, 2009)

4.3 Report of Diana Car Crash Incident

A week after Diana's death, the United Kingdom held the most solemn funeral of the century after Churchill. The media from all over the world has reported the whole story. But the world is no longer calm due to the incident. Media are blamed by many people for the death of Diana.

Due to the incident and the mass media’s report, modern society has been caught up in a huge spiritual split. And media has intensified the image of the division. Diana's death has touched the emotional relationship between the public and Diana. Whether Diana really was killed by the media is not really important to the public, but only to those of the photographers. And in a symbolic sense, it can be referred that the media had killed the Diana as a symbol, because the media had once had established an image of a happy and painful Diana. (Hornstein, Brown and Mulligan, 2003)

Diana's image and story also have been strengthened through the media. Her looks and charm is irreplaceable, especially for the natural aristocratic temperament. A lot of body language researchers often regard her smile as the classic expression to study. Diana’s popularity is by a large extent due to the power of modern media to a large extent. The media for the first time presented the British royal wedding in front of the world, strengthening the public's awareness. From the beginning of Diana, the British royal family entered the vision of the mass culture and the media, which has become a classic topic, so news, media, literature, television, and movies and Internet never gave up this topic, strengthening this classic image from one generation to another generation. (Hornstein, Brown and Mulligan, 2003)

5. Responsibilities of Media, Audiences and Publics

5.1Media’s responsibilities

The exploration of the media’s responsibilities is a complex exchange and collision of the value involving the social organism, a number of social and historical ethics and the important factors of the values.

In the current society, media has a heavy burden and a wide range of responsibilities. Responsibility theories of social media can be divided into three parts.

First of all, the theory of social responsibility should make it clear that the freedom of the public is higher than the freedom of the media. The society must protect the right of the public awareness and ensure that personal privacy is not violated and reputation is not compromised. (Inglima, Mandelbaum and Pinchuk, 1998)

Secondly, the social responsibility of the media should make sure that the freedom is free from outside restriction.

Finally, the social responsibility theory claims that the government should intervene in the media. It argues that the government should not be bystander to freedom of the press. If the press does not take the initiative to assume responsibility, the government will entitle power as a last resort, forcing it to correct. Nothing can prevent government intervention in mass communication. (Inglima, Mandelbaum and Pinchuk, 1998)

The social responsibility theory lists five specific requirements of modern society for mass media.

In the first place, the mass media should report and give its meaning to the things that are true, correct and complete, not only to the facts, but also to the truth of the background, which is very important.

In the second place, media should serve as a forum on exchange of views and a place for exchange, discussion and criticism, which should be considered as a fair discussion by the mass media.

In the third place, media should present social reality and make a real reflection on the activities of the social community. Both positive and negative sides should be taken into account.

In the fourth place, media should clarify the social objectives and value standards. The media should clarify the common goal of the community to praise the good side of society, so that the public can establish a high standard of social values.

In the fifth place, media should provide information at any time. Media should provide the latest news for the public with the most comprehensive reports, so that the public can make informed decisions on public affairs through various reports. (Inglima, Mandelbaum and Pinchuk, 1998)

5.2 Audiences’ responsibilities

For audiences, they should avoid the opinion crisis, especially in the new mass media of the Internet.

On the one hand, the audience should have a clear mind about all the information. The public opinion of the network refers that the public understand information in the field of political, economic, cultural and social aspects through the Internet media. It also gives people’s power to express the opinions and suggestions about the party and the government. With the rise of the network technology, media events are more in the form of network events and the frequency is much higher. The development of the network public opinion gives birth to the network supervision. Public opinions and supervisions are two sides that promote each other is an integral whole.

On the other hand, audience should play a positive role in spreading all kinds of information and forming a positive result of public opinions. For this aspect, supervision is a necessary methodology. Under the background of the Internet, network supervision of public opinion on the promotion of social development has four positive aspects. In the first place, it is conducive to the expression of public opinion. Network supervision can promote social management, network public opinion has effective valve to achieve the expression of public opinion. Secondly, it is helpful to resolve social conflicts. Network public opinions have caused social public opinions, raising the issue, causing for concern and attracting the attention of the government or the relevant departments by formation of pressure, which urge them to influence or change the reality of the objective. Thirdly, it is conducive to improving social culture. The pluralistic concept challenges the unified value and it has led a new idea of thinking by the popularity and enlarging the concept of social change. Fourthly, it can restore the truth. Deconstruction of the traditional interpretation of the authority of the media is not subject to a certain interest groups, but more objectively reflects the truth. (Xian, 2009)

5.3 Publics’ responsibilities

The responsibility of the publics can be analyzed in three aspects.

In the first place, as the general public, the publics should do not spread the news that is not true and information without source. The spread of rumors not only leads to panic, but also results in the social and economic disorder. At this time, people need the media, the government or other authoritative professional organizations to come forward to clarify the rumors in order to prevent its greater negative impact. The channels that the government chose to clarify the rumors need to be carefully considered.

In the second place, the publics should avoid non-rational public opinion. As the Internet space is virtual and open to everyone and speakers’ identity are in the occult, it will result in lack of personal responsibilities, reducing the moral consciousness. People tend to listen to others’ ideas and making become their own ideas without considerate thinking. Therefore, the public should have their own minds and avoid listening to too much information from the audience. Sometimes, the audiences will have wrong ideas about a matter. At this case, the public should have a clear mind toward the related information from mass media.

In the third place, the publics should interfere in others’ points of view and avoid imposing personal ideas on others. Network events are happened with a sudden. At first, it is often inconspicuous, even without any warning. In a short period of time through the microblogging and forums, it has been rapidly spread to every corner in the world and people from all over the world are discussing the matters, which often lose proper control. Once these incidents become the focus, the usage of public opinions will be abused. The public will search for the related people and other confidential information. (Xian, 2009)

6. Conclusion

The mass media of the United Kingdom has been developing by leaps and bounds, which has become one of the major media centers in the world. The media has deeply influenced the audiences and publics. For audiences and publics, they are exposed to the mass media every day or every minute. This essay fully introduces the relationships among media, audiences and publics. These three counterparts are closely related with each other.

In the first place, audiences are part of the publics and the ideas of the audiences will deep affect the formation of concepts in the publics. The psychological aspects of the public will deeply influence the public opinions. Audiences are the first one to receive all the information with first reaction. With the development of the society, they can express their ideas on the mass media like Facebook and Twitter. These comments are widely read by their friends, relatives and other strangers. Gradually, these comments will be forwarded widely and received by the publics. The ideas of the audiences have finally become the public ideas. Therefore, the authenticity is an import dimension related to this matter.

In the second place, as a tool with the special nature of social justice, media is a field of public opinion. The public and public opinion field both coexist in the present society, forming a special public sphere. Media through its own unique public opinion supervision to increase and enhance the public's involvement and trust in the media; in turn, the public through the media supervision of public opinion, promote the formation of modern civil society. The superposition and interaction of the two fields of public opinion constitute an effective mechanism for the development of the modern society.

In the third place, mass media, audiences and publics should take related responsibilities. For mass media, they should provide accurate, fair and opaque information to the audiences and publics. For the audiences, they should be award of using Internet or other channels to express their ideas. For the publics, they should be cautious about the available information. Once the audience becomes the public, the impact of public opinions is very crucial to the whole society. With the development of the Internet and technologies, there is a tendency that the audiences’ ideas will become the ideas of the publics and the audiences will turn to the publics.

The exploration of the relationships of media, audiences and publics is meaningful, which can inspire the development of media theory and give more guidance to supervision regulations.

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