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Take part in Nepal's Hindu festival

2020-06-19 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Take part in Nepal's Hindu festival,文章讲述印度有许多节日,其中圣朝圣是最重要的仪式之一。主要的圣地是恒河和恒河三个支流的发源地。贝纳雷斯(Benares)是印度教徒朝圣的常去中心。为了赎罪,印度教徒要求a悔,以改变自己的命运或为神圣而牺牲。他们通常要经过孟加拉湾到喜马拉雅山的恒河源头,进行神圣的朝圣。他们相信恒河的水可以净化他们犯下的罪过。在本文中,我想介绍我在尼泊尔旅行时亲身经历的两个主要的印度教节日。他们是达莎因(Dashain),是女神母亲的两周,也是妇女节(Teej),是女性的节日。

 

Take part in Nepal's Hindu festival

There are numerous Hindu festivals, among which holy pilgrimage is one of the most important rituals. The major holy sites are Ganges River and the birthplace of the three tributaries of the Ganges River. And Benares is the frequent center of Hindus holy pilgrimage. To atone for their sins, Hindus requests for a penance to change their fate or to sacrifice to the divine. They normally take a long journey across the Bay of Bengal to the source of the Ganges in the Himalayas for holy pilgrimage. They believe the water from the Ganges could purify the sins they made. In this essay, I would like to introduce two major Hindu festivals that I personally experienced when I was travelling in Nepal. They are Dashain, the fortnight of the Mother Goddess and Teej, the festival of women.

Dashain is also known as Durga Puja, for it is the worship of Mother Goddess Durga. It is Nepal’s longest and most lavishly celebrated Hindu festival. Like Christmas, it is the holiday when families unite to exchange blessings and gifts, to spread goodwill and to forget feuds and quarrels. Everyone wears new clothes, feasts are spread, and businesses and government functions come to a pleasant halt as one and all make festive visits to their relatives’ homes.

Throughout Nepal during the two weeks preceding the full moon of September or October, Hindu as well as some Buddhist households celebrates Dashain. This year Dashain falls on 21st of October. In villages throughout the Kingdom, in the homes, streets and temple courtyards of Kathmandu Valley, the great Goddess Durga is propitiated with elaborate dances and ritual animal sacrifices. For it was Durga, in a momentous victory, who saved the world from evil forces.

The gods and goddesses of Hinduism take many alternate forms. Durga, Divine Protectress, is represented either as a simple holy water pot or in her full powerful form with 18 hands holding 18 weapons. Durga also manifested as ferocious Kali with a protruding tongue and a necklace of skulls; or as Taleju - the fearsome Protector Goddess of Nepal; or as Kumari, the gentle virgin Living Goddess. Durga is compassionate when treated to generous offerings of blood and spirits, but she is vengeful if scorned with neglect: thus the fervor with which Hindus celebrate Durga Puja.

The first day of the festival is called Ghatasthapana, the installing of the sacred vessel. From this day onward, for nine consecutive days, people go to different prescribed holy sites on river banks for a ritual morning bath. On the first day, they come from the river carrying sand and water. The sand is neatly spread out on a portion of the family worship room. Barley seeds are sewn on this sand bed, and on it or nearby is installed the sacred vessel, or kalash, usually made from red clay and filled with holy water from the river. The household patriarch or a visiting priest performs prayers to Durga at an astrologically auspicious moment and the goddess comes down and alights on the rim of the kalash for “as long as a mustard seed can balance on the horn of a cow.”

Each day, members of the family sprinkle the seeds in the sad with holy water. After ten days growing secluded from the light, the yellow seedlings four or five inches tall are gathered. A blessing from Durga, the yellow jamara “plant” is worn behind the ear or tied into the hair with other flowers.

The seventh day of Dashain is called Fulpati, the Scred Flower Day. Thousands fill the streets near Rani Pokhari where the Royal Kalash, filled with wild flowers and holy leaves, arrives from its three-day journey carried on foot from the ancestral royal house in Gorkha. A grand gathering of government officials in traditional Nepali dress awaits the arrival. Their Majesties the King and Queen review military troops while cannons boom at nearby Tundikhel, the large open grounds near the General Post Office. The King and Queen, accompanied by marching bands and officials, proceed with the Royal Kalash to Hanuman Dhoka on Durbar Square to worship the all-powerful Goddess Durga.

On Asthami, the eighth day of Dashain, orthodox Hindus fast in preparation for Kalratri, the Black Night, when hundreds of buffaloes, goats, sheep, chickens, and ducks are sacrificed at Durga temples. Black buffaloes, representing the terrifying demon that Durga once slew, are ritually beheaded. It is believed that the sacrificed animals gain merit and are reincarnated as humans, thus given a chance to eventually escape from worldly suffering. The animals’ owners take the meat home for family feasts.

Dasain doesn’t truly climax until Vijaya Dashami, the Great Tenth Day of Victory, the celebration of Rama and Durga’s triumph over universal evil. On this day, also called Tika Day, Hindus dress in their finest and journey around the valley to pay honor and receive blessings from elder relatives and seniors.

The day concludes with more dancing, the Kharga Jatra or Sword Processions. Buddhist priests dressed as Kali, the Living Goddess Kumari, Ganesh the Elephant God and other Deities, prance and quiver under trance late into the night through the streets of old Kathmandu.

The last day of Dashain, known as Kojagrat Purnima, falls on the full moon. Hindu women begin a month-long fast, many in residence at Pashupatinath. Buddhist worshippers parade from dawn to dark by Patan’s stupas. At home, people hold all-night vigils gambling or talking, with the belief that those awake at midnight will be blessed by Laxmi, the Goddess of Prosperity.

Thus ends the fortnight of Durga Puja. Daily life resumes with gained fortitude, and expectations of success and good health. Dasain is a propitious time for all.

Then it comes with the fasting festival of the Women, named as Teej. Teej is a festival of women – of women’s strength, of women’s devotion to their family, and of women’s divine role, exemplified by the Goddess Parbati, wife of Lord Shiva.

Long ago, in the mythological past, Parbati, daughter of the god Himalaya, fell in love with Lord Shiva. Although offered then hand of the great Lord Vishnu, she was devoted to Shiva, the divine ascetic sitting alone in the meditation on the summit of Mount Kailash. Shiva ignored her and Parbati, despite her father’s wishes, changed her fine raiment for the simplest clothes and began a long fast, praying to Lord Shiva to rise from his meditation and take her as his wife. Parbati’s devotion and austerities finally won Lord’s heart. Hindu women fast during Teej to express devotion to their husbands as Parbati expressed devotion to Shiva.

This year Teej falls on the 14th of September. The first day of Teej is not a fast, but a women’s feast. Women fill the marketplaces, buying the richest, most luscious foods they can find, for on this day the husband cannot argue with the cost, even if he has to loan to pay for it. Men have a rueful saying, “a woman observing her Teej fast often consumes a whole bushel of corn.”

The women gather together in the afternoon or evening, the children and men are shooed out, and the pre-fasting party begins. Mothers and daughters, sisters and grandmothers sit around, laughing and joking and eating all they can, for at midnight the fast begins. Songs are sung and perhaps a few twirling steps are taken for Teej is one of the very few times considered proper for a woman to sing or dance.

On the second day, women take no food or water, it is said that they do not even swallow their own saliva. Women past puberty participate – the wedded for their husband, the unmarried for assurance of a good mate. In some households, the women serve their husbands with special care on this day.

This is one of the most colorful days of the year, as the streets are filled with groups of laughing, singing women, all dressed in their bright red wedding saris, on their way to Pashupatinath temple to pay homage to Lord Shiva and Goddess Parbati.

At the temple of Shiva, on the banks of the sacred Bagmati River, the women give offerings of flowers, coins and rice to the great lingam, or phallic image of Lord Shiva.

The final day is called Rishi Panchami. In the morning the wife completes the ceremonies begun the previous day. She offers Prasad food received and blessed by the gods to her husband and literally washes his feet.

Now women make their way to sacred spots along the rivers for a ritual bath of purification. Special red mud is daubed 360 times on different parts of the body. A sacred plant, called datiwan, is used to sprinkle water over the head and to brush the teeth, each 360 times. Finally, submersion in the sacred waters of the river washes away the faults and transgressions of the past year.

Reflection from above, why there is no fasting for the men? Why this is the day when women with firm resilience stay on a difficult fast for the longevity of their husbands. Meanwhile the unmarried girls it is said stay on fast so that they may get good husbands in the future. The flip side of Teej that I sometimes ponder about rather innocently is why there is no religious occasion when a man has to stay on a fast for the longevity of his wife?

 

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