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Literature review on racial discrimination

2020-06-19 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Literature review on racial discrimination,文章讲述在美国,种族歧视一直是一个热门话题。特别是当奥巴马于2008年成为美国第一位黑人总统时,美国的种族问题和种族歧视再次引起人们的关注,并引起了广泛关注,因为美国被认为是最民主,最自由,最理想的国家。种族歧视不再存在的孤独时间。但是Diaconu2010)在其著作《种族歧视》中声称,在世界上不同种族和文化背景的人的迁徙和流动增加的情况下,种族歧视问题仍然是当今的热门话题(第58页)。 。的确,作为一个大移民国,美国很难在短时间内融化所有文化,这导致了种族主义或种族歧视的长期存在。每种文化都有其自己的族裔血统和背景或特征,因此在日常生活中确实会以多种形式出现种族特征(Meeks2010P.175)。

 

Literature review on racial discrimination

Racial discrimination has been a heated issue in America. Especially when Obama became the first black president of the United States in 2008, American racial issue and racial discrimination came into people’s eyes again and gave rise to large attention, as America  has been considered to be the most democratic, free and ideal country for a lone time that the racial discrimination would not exist any longer. But in his book Racial Discrimination, Diaconu (2010) claims that the issue of racial discrimination is still a topical subject today under the condition of the increased migration and movement of people of different ethnic origins and cultural background in the world (p. 58). Indeed, America, as a big immigration country, is hard to melt all the cultures in a short time, which contributes to the long-term existence of racism or racial discrimination. Each culture has its own ethnic origins and background or features, so racial profiling does happen in the daily life every day in many forms (Meeks, 2010, P. 175). Meeks argues that racial profiling will absolutely do harm to people in the daily life and explores deeply the main potential racial profiling cases from the perspectives of class, age, race and dress (CARD) (p. 181). Racial profiling is some kind of racial prejudice to some race, for example, the black people are used to be considered as a cruel, stupid and low-class race. Therefore, the racial profiling can be said to be a new kind of form of racial discrimination at present. According to Meeks, some people may have been denied their civil rihts because of racial profiling, and he gives some suggestions on how to deal with the potential life-threatening situations and recourse for them, such as strengthening education (pp. 183-190).

Meanwhile, today racial discrimination has new major racial and ethnic changes in the United States, which are happening and sweeping in America, because the second generation of the races of Hispanic and Asian groups accounts for all the growth in the whole nation’s youth population (Frey, 2014, p. 136). There are many immigrants including Asians in the United States, whose population occupies certain proportion of the whole American population. Based on the statistics, the next generation of the Asians in the United States plays a large role in the whole American youth population, so Frey points out the United States would be more of a “melting pot in waiting” that race relations of neighborhood segregation, mixed-race marriages or political ramifications in America will be more difficult to identify (p. 152). With the growing population of immigrants in America, the racial discrimination will be developed into a new page. It may be more melting with the increasing mix of different races. Rose (2014), similarly, explores the new inter-group relations of examining prejudice, discrimination, minority status, jargon-free prose, etc. from the perspective of sociology that demographic changes have happened in the persisting patterns recently, such as the “leapfrog’ phenomenon (p. 201). He argues that racial and ethnic relations have new developments today, such as the rise of Islamophobia, the nativist and nationalist movements, or the rise of xenophobia (p. 215). Such the new developments are easy to understand, I think, because today is a multi-cultural world with an increasing globalization. Different races and cultures can meet conflicts, melt or combination during the development of globalization.

However, in his book Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal, Hacker (2010) argues and emphasizes that racial inequality still exists in America in the daily, such as family life, education, income and employment, and race accounts for America’s history and will continue to shape its future (p. 146). It is known to us that America’s history can be said to be racial history, as America has been a large immigration country since its discovery. In addition, Blank (2004) puts forward that the size of and extent of racial discrimination can be measured and thus serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunities, although there are many factors contributing to racial discrimination (p. 97). As is known to us or mentioned above, today’s large differences on racial and ethnic groups still exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, health and other areas, but a thorough evaluation of methods for racial discrimination can be referred to Blank’s book (p. 107).

On the other hand, with the evolution of racial discrimination, the anti-racial discrimination came into being as well. Solanke (2009) argues that making anti-racial discrimination law is an effective and good way to fight against the racial discrimination (p. 112). Also, he identifies the important influence of both the extreme right and liberalism on anti-racial discrimination law (p. 135). In fact, to deal with racial discrimination, Diaconu argues in his book that racial discrimination is a long-term important problem that needs all kinds of supports from the people and governments (p. 79).

Hypothesis

Racial discrimination is an old and large social issue in America. Overseeing America’s history, there are numerous factors leading to the racial discrimination, including historical factors, geographic factors, the social ideology, the economic factors or the political factors. No wonder the racial discrimination can exist for a long time and is developed and evolved into many new forms today. Likewise, the anti-racial discrimination movements came into being and plays an important role to eliminate the racial discrimination. To terminate the racial discrimination, apart from utilizing the ideas of Solanke’s making laws, Meeks’s suggestion of promoting education and Diaconu’s proposal of combining all supports from people and government, I think creating and promoting equal job opportunities can be a good and effective tool as well.

 

 

Reference

Blank, R.M. (2004). “Measuring Racial Discrimination”. (pp. 90-110). New York: National Academies Press.

Diaconu, I. (2010). “Racial Discrimination.” (pp. 55-83). Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing.

Frey, W. H. (2014). “Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remarking America.” (pp. 131-167). Washington: Brookings Institution.

Hacker, A. (2010). “Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal”. (p. 146). London: Scribner; Rep Sub.

Meeks, K. (2010). “Driving While Black: Highways, Shopping Malls, Taxi Cabs, Sidewalks: How to Fight Back if You Are a Victim of Racial Profiling .” (pp. 171-190). New York: Broadway Books.

Rose, P.I. (2014). “They and We: Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States-And Beyond”. (pp. 200-220). New York: Paradigm.

Solanke, I. (2009). “Making Anti-Racial Discrimination Law”. (p. 112.) Washington: Routledge.

 

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