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Reform and build a social security system covering urban and rural residents

2020-06-11 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Reform and build a social security system covering urban and rural residents,文章讲述改革开放以来,中国经济取得了较快增长,但国民经济增长的社会福利水平尚未得到同步改善。随着人口的老龄化和城乡差距,贫富差距,社会收入分配不公等挑战,在家庭保障不完善的影响下,我国应采取什么样的改革政策?本文主要从两个方面着手:一是建立社会保障体系评价指标,二是建立覆盖中国城乡居民的社会保障体系。在评价指标的建设上,首先要建立系统结构,系统目标,系统改革和法制建设四个总体指标。然后,我将一一详述,以形成一个完整的社会保障评价指标体系。在建立覆盖中国城乡居民的社会保障体系时,我将从社会保险,社会救济和社会福利三个角度研究我国的社会保障体系,分析现状,总结成就和不足,并提出政策建议。

 

Reform and build a social security system covering urban and rural residents

 

Since reform and opening up, China has obtained rapid economic growth, but social welfare of the national economic growth has not yet been synchronized improved. With the accelerating aging of the population and challenges of urban and rural gap, the gap between rich and poor, unfair distribution of social income, under the influence of incomplete family security, what kind of reforms policy does our country have to adopt? This essay will dwell on two aspects: one is to build evaluation index of the social security system, the second is to build the social security system covering both urban and rural residents in China. In terms of construction of evaluation index, I will firstly set up four general indicators of systematic structure, systematic target, systematic reform and legal construction. Then I will detail it one by one so that a complete evaluation index system of social security will be formed. In building the social security system covering both urban and rural residents in China, I will research our social security system from three angles of social insurance, social relief and social welfare, analyze present situation, summarize achievements and deficiencies and put forward policy suggestions.

System structure of the social security system, which can be classified from two perspectives: the first type is the horizontal system structure, namely social security project. The second type is the vertical system structure, namely social security pillar. In terms of horizontal structure with difference of the social security funds raising and expenses Shared responsibility, social security system model can be divided into four modes: the welfare state mode, social insurance mode, mandatory saving mode and national insurance. Social security in China started relatively late. At present, the social security system has been basically formed that adapts to socialist market economy. The existing social security system in our country and that in modern western countries have both similarities and certain differences. Overall, the pace of the social security system reform in our country is still very backward. The multi-pillar pension mode put forward by the World Bank [2] has huge impact on the social security system in our country. Since the 15th plenary session of the party, in order to adapt to the construction of the socialist market economy and the needs of the economic structure adjustment, our country, based on the current position and a long-term perspective, has issued a series of policies and measures. China's social security system framework has been basically established, significant results were obtained in the social security system construction.

Systematic target of the social security system can be divided into primary and affiliate target. Primary target mainly includes four indicators: one is the adequacy, namely the social security system should provide adequate income protection for older people, including the absolute level and relative level. The absolute level is to prevent the elderly poverty. The relative level is to achieve a certain income replacement. Two is affordable, that is, the social security burden should stay in a reasonable scope without making higher premium rate. Three is sustainability, namely in the long term social security program can be financially able to maintain a balance. Do not make a sudden premium increase or lower treatment and also do not make a massive fiscal transfer;

There are mainly six modes for all countries to carry out social security system reform [1]: small the parameters of the reform, big fully market-oriented reform, the medium change in the name of the account system reform, the early change of public raise funding the multi-pillar reform of the reform, and uniform change of the integration of fragmentation system reform. The six kinds of modes are not absolute mutually exclusive. A country, who selects a reform model at the same time, also can mix with other multiple modes. Therefore, the relationship between the social security system reform modes has provided a broad space for policy making. Since the third plenary session of the 14th central committee of the communist party of China in 1993, that determines the insurance system in our country implementing pattern of integration account, the social security system reform in our country has been further deepened. The social security system reform in China has its own features, but if, in accordance with the above six reform modes; the social security system reform in our country belongs to the parameter reform [3]. But it also carries out the reform of the public to raise funding in advance, multi-pillar reform, and has carried on the integration of fragmentation system reform [4] pilot. In the parameter type reform, although the social security system reform in China has made significant achievements, but still a long way, in the principle of reform, reform strategy and the cohesion between the various system still need to improve.

The social security legislation patterns in some developed countries such as Britain, Germany and the United States are typical. The British Beveridge’s report established the basic principles of improving social security system, which had pushed the UK to the top world welfare state of "from cradle to grave". Germany is a model of the civil law countries in social security legal system construction. It mainly includes the social relief, social insurance [5], social welfare and social allowances. In 1935 "social security act" in the United States laid a foundation for the social security system. It was the first law in the world to conduct a comprehensive system of social security and set up pattern of "one law controlling method" to reflect according to the grades of effective legislation. The social security legislation of these three countries are worth for references. Since China's reform and opening up, China preliminarily laid a basic framework of social security system compatible with the socialist market economy, but present legislation has developed relatively slow. The most importance is the lack of advanced concepts of social security legislation, which more emphasizes on the economic efficiency and ignores the social justice. A long-term urban-rural binary segmentation result in regional economic development imbalance, which is difficult to form a unified economic base and our social security legislation lags behind. In practice, new and old system coexists and all kinds of insurance-related regulations lacks. As a result, there will exist an incomplete social security system framework and serious "fragmentation". The enforcement mechanism and supervision mechanism of social security law are weak. And the corresponding legal responsibility system need to be further strengthened.

Social insurance system is an important backbone system to improve the socialist market economy system, to construct a harmonious socialist and comprehensive well-off society. Since the reform and opening, our social insurance has made great achievements, which mainly reflects in the following aspects: to promote the enterprise reform and economic system reform on the basis of system construction; to constantly expand the coverage of social insurance by making extension as the goal; to maintain social stability by solving left-over historical problems as an opportunity; to reduce the burden of enterprises and institutions by making social management as the goal; to strengthen the social insurance fund management by improving the measures for the supervision level. But in the new situation, along with the economic and social development, there have been some problems of restricting and affecting sustainable healthy development of the social insurance system. It mainly includes: the social insurance coverage is small due to factors of the population, employment and policy; the low degree of social security level; poor plan as whole; hard collection of insurance premium; weak supervision services; deficient social insurance system, the low effectiveness, lack of fairness, poor sustainability.

Since China's reform and opening up, the party and the government actively carry out social relief work, constantly improve the system of social assistance, has made remarkable achievements. At present, China's social assistance system preliminary formation framework, covering the number gradually increased, the overall level of continuous improvement, investment increasing. But also want to see, social assistance business is facing some new situation, such as poor social risk increasing, the demand of the social relief type has become increasingly diverse, the negative impact of poverty problem increasingly apparent. At the same time, the social assistance system self building, there are some outstanding problems, such as social assistance security standard is still low, big gap between urban and rural areas, still limited coverage, incentive remains to be enhanced. The factors restricting the construction of social assistance system is not only from the operation mechanism and ideology, but also from the investment and management service.

After founding of new China, our social welfare enterprise has progressed constantly and made a historic contribution for the country's stability and development. Since the reform and open policy, our social welfare enterprise enters a period of great development; various welfare undertakings have made new achievements. Especially after entering the 21st century, our social welfare enterprise gradually from "supplementary type" to "moderate general preferential type", safeguard object expanding coverage, service increasingly rich content, the welfare of the household, community, institutions of corresponding service system basic formation, the elderly, the disabled, troubled children and other vulnerable groups are increasingly share the achievements of the reform and opening-up and the development of social welfare.

 

References:

[1] Feldstein M. Social security pension reform in China[J]. China Economic Review, 1999, 10(2): 99-107.

[2] Holzmann R, Hinz R P, Dorfman M. Pension systems and reform conceptual framework[J]. The World Bank, 2008.

[3] Hussain A. Social security in present-day China and its reform[J]. The American Economic Review, 1994: 276-280.

[4] Leung J C B. Social security reforms in China: Issues and prospects[J]. International Journal of Social Welfare, 2003, 12(2): 73-85.

[5] Liu Y. Development of the rural health insurance system in China[J]. Health Policy and Planning, 2004, 19(3): 159-165.

 

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