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Canadian Immigration Policy Review

2020-05-14 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

网课代修,网课代写,作业代写,北美代写,代写

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文-Canadian Immigration Policy Review加拿大作为一个主要位于北美高海拔地区的国家,已经成功地吸引了来自世界各地的移民为其经济和社会建设服务。与美国不同的是,加拿大的气候比美国冷得多,人口也比我们少得多;然而,加拿大每年仍设法吸引数百名移民。尽管加拿大拥有丰富的自然资源和优越的地理位置(与美国接壤的邻国),但加拿大在吸引移民方面的成功与加拿大的移民政策和其他与移民有关的政策密不可分。本文旨在探讨加拿大的移民政策,特别是20世纪后时期的移民政策。加拿大是一个在经济发展方面非常依赖移民的国家。本文将探讨这些政策背后隐藏的吸引力,并分析政府实施这些政策的原因,以及它们给加拿大和加拿大社会带来了什么样的结果。务实的政策帮助加拿大保持了稳定的经济增长,在世界上树立了良好的声誉。

 

Canada, as a country which is located mainly in high altitude areas in North America, has been successfully attracting immigrants from all over the world to serve its economy and social construction. Unlike United States, Canada is much more freezing in terms of climate, and has a much smaller population than that of US; however, it still manages to attract hundreds of immigrants every year. Despite the country’s rich natural resources and outstanding geographical location (a bordering neighbor of U.S.), Canada’s success in immigration attraction has inseparable connections with Canada’s immigration policies and other policies related to immigration. This essay aims to discuss the immigration policies of Canada, especially during the post-20th Century period. Canada is a country which relies much on immigrants in terms of economic development. The essay will explore the attractions hidden behind these policies and analyze the reason they are carried out by the government and what results they have brought to Canada and Canadian society. The pragmatic policies have helped Canada to maintain a stable economic growth and created a good reputation in the world.

 

By the end of WWII, Canada had gained an autonomous status from the British Empire, despite full sovereignty still being held by the United Kingdom, it acted just as an independent state on its own. With the destruction of European Continent brought by the world, Canada witnessed a large wave of immigration from Europe, especially those of Britain, Ireland and France. These people, either serviceman or war refugees, were under great pressure in their former countries. The Canadian governments embraced these immigrants with great enthusiasm, passing the Immigration and Nationality Act in 1952, allowing the European immigrants to come in as long as they meet financial demand of the Canadian government, which means that they can feed themselves (Eckerson, 1958). Also, Canadian government welcomed the alien spouses and children of Canadian citizen and permanent residents as well, resulting in the large number of influx of women and children during the 1940s and 1950s. The demand for immigrants during this period had little to do with the following concerns in terms of economic growth or social development, the government and the Immigration and Nationality Act simply encouraged people to seek new homes in North America, since their old homes were destroyed during the war. It was estimated that among the nearly 1.5 million Canadian immigrants who moved to the country from 1946-1956 (Eckerson, 1956), nearly 40% of them were British, and the second largest group were French, followed by United States and other countries of Europe.

 

Despite welcoming the immigrants, the immigration policy of Canada still had very obvious preference over the nationality of the immigrants. The European and American immigrants, especially those from Britain, France and colonies of British Empire (Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, etc.), were given very casual conditions in terms of immigration (Parai, 1975); some even regulated that as long as they have enough funding to support themselves (among which a lot of them do), they can obtain the legitimate identity of Canada only after a short period of time. For the Asians, however, the policies are much stricter, as the Canadian government is unwilling to change the basic population character of the country. Only a few people from India, Punjab and Ceylon were admitted as citizens every year. The Chinese immigrants were also strictly handled during the 1940s and 1950s (Parai, 1975). It was not until 1960s did Canadian government adjusted its policy and weakened the preference over nationality when admitting immigrants, but that difference still exists today. Another factor which influenced Canada’s immigration policy was the hostile situation between West and East, also known as the Cold War, particularly during the 1940s and 1950s when the tensions were much heated. Immigrants and refugees from East Europe moved into Canada in escape of Soviet control and occupation. The first set of immigrants were Polish soldiers who were unable to go back to Poland because of Soviet occupation after the Great War, they went to Canada in large number in 1940s. Afterwards, in 1956, refugees of Hungary and Poland entered Canada again out of the anti-Soviet revolution in the two countries. During 1968 and 1969, approximately 12,000 Czechoslovakian refugees entered Canada to flee from the consequence of Prague Spring (Parai, 1975). Canada, as a member state of NATO, was pushed to stand on the frontier against Warsaw Pact states during the Cold War. Taking in refugees and deserters from East Europe is a unique war fought by Canada against the Soviets, and it had become a magnet for people behind the Iron Curtain who thirsted for life in the West.

 

The social and political attractions towards the immigrants to Canada can be thus attributed to the following issues: first, the immigration policy encourages the Europeans to move from their countries that were destroyed by the war into Canada, so that it will gain a large population growth; second, the immigration policy tolerates the political refugees from Soviet controlled area in Europe as a unique way to fight its own cold war. These two issues played a predominant role in Canada’s immigration policies during the 1940s and 1960s, and had to give way to economic concerns after 1960s, when the world entered the wave of the third Industrial Revolution and Canada gained its own independence.

 

The resurrection of Europe in 1950s and 1960s made European immigrants fall drastically among all immigrants in 1960s, along with the rise of status of Australia in Europeans’ mind in terms of immigration. In order not to jeopardize the population situation in Canada, the government adjusted its policy and allowed more people from Asia, Africa and United States to immigrate to Canada. Also, the government began to focus more on immigrants’ skills and education background so that they can provide valuable workforce to Canada’s economic development. But the assessment was not in a good order from the beginning, since the immigrants from Asia and Africa have generally lower capability in occupations than those from Europe. In 1967, the Canadian government issued a point system to determine the ones that can stay as qualified immigrants (Green & Green, 1999). The point items included educational background, occupational experiences and skills, age, reading and writing ability in English and French, relatives, etc. Among these factors, the most important ones have fallen on education and skills, which shows that the government is taking these two factors as the prior conditions before immigrants can come to Canada.

 

Also, after the elimination of ethnical and racial discrimination in immigration policies, some groups that were considered unwelcomed in Canada had gained much better conditions both in their lives in Canada and potential immigration opportunities to Canada. The Italians were one of the most typical kinds that got benefit from this shift. Actually, the Italians were able to immigrate to Canada right after the Depression took place in United States and Europe, but their status was not taken as important as the British and the Americans, given the fact that they were not Anglo-Saxons that formed the majority of Canada’s occupation. After World War II, a large bulk of Italian migrated into Canada, while the Canadian government still viewed them discriminately from the Anglo-Saxons; they nonetheless took a pragmatic attitude since there was a shortage of workforce in Canada at that time, and that Italians could compensate the lack to a large extent. In 1949, the deputy minister of immigration of Canada even toured Italy and reached an agreement in 1950 with the Italian government, so that “bulks” of Italian immigrant workers along with their families are sent to Canada to help the local economy, mainly the construction of the two main railway programs across Canada (Iacovetta, 1991). In addition, entrepreneurs, or business immigrants, became a new growing point in Canadian immigration in 1978. The decision was made upon various situations at that time—first, there were insufficient skilled workers coming to Canada after 1970s, which was essential for the further development of the country; second, the total number of immigrants declined during 1974 and 1978, causing a shortage of manpower once again in the country (Green & Green, 1999); third, under the influence brought by the recession in 1974, Canada’s economic pace went slow and suffered from downturn. All these issues brought the government to issue the permission of business immigration, which allows businessmen coming into the country and start their own business, so that they could bring in funds, create jobs and bring more opportunities to the society (Harrison, 1996).

 

To sum up the economic predominant immigration policy after 1960s, we can see that Canada adjusted its immigration policy to keep its attraction towards potential immigrants in two ways: one is that the Canadian government abandons the discrimination imposed upon Asians, Africans and non-Anglo Saxon Caucasians, expanding the admission range to a wider extend; the other is that it takes a pragmatic strategy in accepting the immigrants, they could see clearly the most needed group of the society and brought them to Canada, such as the Italians and the business immigrants mentioned above. These strategies helped Canada to overcome the influence of several economic recessions in the 20th century, while maintaining its status in attracting immigrants, even compared to Australia and other new preferred immigration destinations.

 

After 1990s, the Canadian government abandoned the “absorption capacity” which had always been in its immigration policy, indicating that it does not see immigrants as an essential way to keep its own population to a stable figure (Sweetman & Warman, 2013). Also, the government is restricting the number of business immigration to control the domestic demographic structure in prevention of possible conflict between different social classes of the country. The immigrants have played a special role in Canada’s development after the World War II; while it stays out of the main conflicts between superpowers of the world, it maintained a rather stable economic growth and gained precious opportunities brought by immigrants from all over the world. Canada had not only become a successful, developed entity of the world, but also a country which holds good reputations in the world, and there are many potential immigrants waiting to go into Canada even today. All these achievements have inseparable connections with the successful adjustments of Canada’s immigration policy: it welcomes the skilled, educated workforce from the entire world to settle down, while also absorbing funds and investments to make profits for its citizens. The pragmatic immigration policies will keep benefiting Canada and its people in the new era of globalization.

 

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