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Major Economic Systems in History

2020-04-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

Major Economic Systems in History

 

在人类历史上,曾有过几种经济制度。第一个也是最早的经济制度叫封建主义。在封建社会,人们被传统所摧残。当时,大约在815世纪的欧洲,封建主义是一种传统统治的经济制度。没有中央政府,也没有统一的法律体系,大多数人都住在庄园主的围墙里。虽然上帝提供了保护,但传统比上帝更能统治庄园。传统通过指手画脚的方式,阻止了个人从事他们最擅长的工作。当社会必须改变时,传统就不能很好地发挥作用。逃离庄园的农奴可以安全地逃到城镇。市场打破了传统,货币极大地扩大了交易的可能性。

 

During the history of human beings, there have been several economic systems. The first and earliest economic system is called Feudalism. In Feudal Society, people were ruined by tradition. At that time, about the 8th to the 15th century in Europe, Feudalism was an economic system in which traditions ruled. There was no central government and no unified system of law, most individuals lived in walled manors belonging to the manor lord. Although the lord provided protection, tradition ruled the manor more than the lord did. By dictating who did what, tradition prevented individuals from being employed at what they did best. Tradition doesn’t work well when society must undergo change. Serfs who fled the manor could safely escape to towns or cities. Markets broke down tradition and money greatly expanded the possibilities of trading.

Then, the economic system changed from Feudalism to Mercantilism. Traders and merchants became wealthier than feudal lords. They threw their support to the king, enabling the king to expand his power over the lords. Power shifted from the manors to cities and towns. The government became an active influence on economic decision making. On one hand, the government encouraged growth by legitimizing and financing a variety of activities; on the other hand, the government limited growth by protecting monopolies. Industrialists competed with the guilds to change the existing system. Craft guild members were artists in their own crafts and industrialists devised machines to replace hand production by craftsmen.

After Mercantilism provided the source for major growth in Western Europe, the economic system started change to Capitalism. The reason might be that industrialists supported and financed democratic reform movements limiting the power of kings. Craftsmen argued that government needed to coordinate economic activity. In his book, The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith developed the concept of the invisible hand. He argued that markets could coordinate the economy without active government involvement. Then the Industrial Revolution began at about 1750, in that time technology and machines rapidly modernized industrial production, mass produced goods replaced handmade goods. By the 1800s, the Industrial Revolution, democracy, and capitalism had become Western institutions. Capitalism was marked by long workdays, low wages, child labor, and dangerous working conditions, which gave rise to criticism of the capitalist or market economic system.

The best-known critic of the capitalism was Karl Marx. Marx argued that workers would revolt and that capitalism would be replaced by a socialist economic system. Governments stepped in to stop the worst abuses of capitalism. In the late 1930s and the 1940s, it was the worker who dominated the political agenda. Capitalism became welfare capitalism – an economic system in which the market operates but government regulates markets significantly. Capitalism did not evolve into socialism as Marx predicted it would. Socialism took root instead in feudalist Russia, a society largely bypassed by the Industrial Revolution. Russian socialists created state socialism. Then it came to the state socialism - an economic system in which government sees to it that people work for the common good. Central planning agencies were created to coordinate economic activities. Since the late 1980s, Soviet-style socialism has fallen apart because workers lacked incentives to work, production was inefficient, consumer goods were either unavailable and of poor quality or high Soviet officials exploited their positions.

Comments on China’s Economic System

After years of rapid economic growth, China is now the world’s second largest economy. The transition of China’s market economic system model originates from the rural area, and gradually recognized by the national system with the de-glamorization of ideological terrain. Good economic performance propels the successive launch of system reform in various fields of the economy. The reform gradually becomes the mainstream ideology of the society. The theoretical circle starts the extensive and long-term discussions on the relationship between planned and market economy, the goal, direction, path, scope and level of economic system reform, and finally proposed the target model of socialistic market economic system.

The establishment of target model of socialistic market economic system marks the launch of systematic reform of China’s economic system. China’s economic system transformation is a process of transforming China’s economic system under the framework of clear transformation goal, binding systems and open reform. To promote economic development and modernize the country has always been the guiding principle of economic system transformation, and exploring the general way to integrate the socialist system and market economy is the theoretical subject of this transformation. The proposal of China’s market economic system model transformation is associated with the order transition of socioeconomic system, good economic performance and stable social life, and it is the experience conclusion and theory summary of this economic transformation process.

After over 30 years’ system reform, China’s economic system reform has made extraordinary achievements by successfully discarding the ideal system in western countries and proceeding from the actual situation of the country. The aggregate economic volume of China is continuously magnifying, and China’s economy is constantly integrating into the world economy. China’s overall national strength is constantly enhanced, the government function is going through transformation, and the socialistic market economic system has been built basically. Meanwhile, the progressive reform and government-dominated economic development model has any disadvantages as well. The economic system reform is confronted with such problems as weakened power, slowdown of economic growth and increasing social conflicts, etc.

The next few years is the key period for China’s economic system reform to reach the target model of modern and matured market economic system. The central government shall rely on its own political authority, establish the development ideology centered on economic growth, vigorously promote reform in various fields with greater determination and courage, place greater emphasis on the top design and overall planning of the reform, define the priority and focus of the reform, enhance the pilot test for overall reform, further mobilize the enthusiasm of all sectors, repect the innovative spirit of the general public, vigorously promote the reform of economic system, steadily promote the reform of political system, accelerate the reform of cultural and social system, and make breakthroughs in important fields and crucial link.

     

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