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Promising Gas Conversion Systems for Industry

2020-03-09 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Promising Gas Conversion Systems for Industry,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是先锋宇航和先锋能源公司一直在研究火星的动力系统和火箭推进剂。为美国宇航局开发的实验是通过将氢与火星二氧化碳结合来获得甲烷和水,并通过电解水来获得氧气(约翰逊航天中心,2015年)。这个过程返回了一个很好的组合,可以作为火箭燃料的推进。

Promising Gas Conversion Systems for Industry

1. Introduction

Pioneer Astronautics and Pioneer Energy have been researching Martian power systems and rocket propellant on Mars. The experimentation developed for NASA is to obtain methane and water through combining hydrogen with Martian carbon dioxide, and oxygen by electrolyzing the water (Johnson Space Center, 2015). This procession returns a good combination which could be used as the propulsion for rocket fuel. Thanks to the restless intellect of Robert Zubrin, leader of Pioneer Astronautics and Pioneer Energy, this technology can also be applied to oil and energy industry. The Mobile Alkane Gas Separator (MAGS) turns waste flare gases into profitable quality natural gases liquids and the Pioneer Portable Enhanced Recovery Technology (PERT) produces carbon dioxide and hydrogen from at the oil wells (Robert Zubrin, 2014). Both technologies are outstanding in the profitability and environmental protection, offering a promising method in the oil recovery on Earth. These systems and the underlying mechanisms are dedicated for fuel and life support. Such projects should be continued to receiving funding and carry on researching.

2. The Origin of MAGS and PERT

In order to develop Martian power systems and innovate rocket propulsion, Robert Zubrin has done many molecular alchemy experimentations and research work. An innovative discovery from these work is a self-sufficient system to produce rocket fuel on Mars. This power system collects hydrogen and Martian carbon dioxide to make methane and water, then electrolyze the water to make oxygen. Oxygen is used for life support, and methane creates rocket fuel on Mars to return to Earth. This power system has a better performance and return on investment, leading to the application for oil recovery in the oil industry. Considering that this chemical procession can be put into real life application and use, Robert Zubrin found two projects, the Pioneer Portable Enhanced Recovery Technology (PERT) and the Mobile Alkane Gas Separator (MAGS), to study further practical benefits in oil energy industry.  

3. Current Practices of MAGS and PERT

These two projects are now playing a role in oil energy industry. The Pioneer Portable Enhanced Recovery Technology (PERT) offers an inexpensive and easy method of producing onsite carbon dioxide, aimed to capture oil in a well, and hydrogen, used to create carbon-free electricity. The Pioneer Energy’s Mobile Alkane Gas Separator (MAGS) is a gas-processing plant to produce from the waste flare gas and separate useful natural gases, such as methane and ethane, to be shipped for sale and oil drilling and so on (Robert Zubrin, 2014).

4. The Reasons for the MAGS and PERT Projects to be Continued

4.1 Economical and Increase Revenue

With the high price of crude oil and the fall in oil discoveries during recent decades, there is a growing oil demand all over the world. However, the conventional primary and secondary recovery method are inefficient, only yielding about 20-40% of the original oil in place (OOIP) as incremental oil (Abass A and Olajire, 2014). It is found that nearly 2.0 ×  barrels (0.3 ×  ) of conventional oil and 5.0 ×  barrels (0.8 ×  ) of heavy oil still remain in reservoir worldwide (S.Thomas, 2008). Therefore, it is critical and imperative to increase the recovery factors under primary and secondary production to meet the demand. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), as a subset of Improved Oil Recovery (IOR), was introduced in the 1980s. Enhanced Oil Recovery is the application of various techniques to extract crude oil from an oil filed. This method provides a cost-effective and improved way of oil drilling, by which the extracted quantity is about 20% of the original oil store (Abass A and Olajire, 2014). Among various techniques among EOR, U.S Department of Energy finalized thermal recovery, gas injection and chemical injection, which the two also classified as non-thermal recovery (S.Thomas, 2008), as three primary techniques for EOR. According to U.S Department of Energy, gas injection, as well as miscible flooding, takes up nearly 60% of American EOR production. Owing to the capacity of reducing the oil viscosity and inexpensive price, carbon dioxide is commonly used as the miscible displacement in gas injection technique. In addition, carbon dioxide EOR, which stands for the injection of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery, is a proven tertiary techniques to improve depleted reservoirs production after secondary water-flooding (Fen Pan et.al, 2016) and accounts for about 5% of total crude oil production in America (RM Enick, DK Olsen, JR Ameer & W Schuller, 2012). U.S Department of Energy estimated that the application of ‘next generation’ carbon dioxide EOR would produce additional 240 billion barrels (38 km3) of recoverable oil resources. However, the insufficient supply of affordable carbon dioxide impedes carbon dioxide EOR from fully realizing in oil resource recovery. On the other hand, economic factors play a significant role in the initiation of carbon dioxide EOR (Vladimir and Eduardo, 2010). Commonly, a pilot operation and the pipeline to truck carbon dioxide to the site all become financial burdens for most companies (Johnson Space Center, 2015).

By comparison, the PERT system and the MAGS system provide a cheap, but efficient alternative to pin down this problem. On one hand, the raw and processed materials input in the PERT system are natural gas and water, which are low-cost and abundant in life. Besides about 500,000 cubic feet of carbon dioxide produced per day, the PERT system also generate adequate hydrogen to run 1.3 megawatts electricity (Johnson Space Center, 2015). This is a promising, attractive and economical way for carbon dioxide EOR. On the other hand, the MAGS collects and separates raw natural gas, which as usual is being flared in large quantities but actually could be captured and sold for profit. The outcomes after the MAGS system operation are methane and liquids. Methane replaces expensive diesel fuel to operate onsite generators and the valuable natural gas liquids can be transported for sale to increase revenue.

4.2 Environmental- friendly

The massive natural gas, also known as ‘flare gas’, are the byproducts of oil drilling and are simply burned onsite due to the lack of procession. Beside the energy waste, this definitely raised environmental issues, causing greenhouse gas emissions (Hoseinzade, L., & Ii, T. A. A., 2016), and is prohibited by many state and federal regulators. World Bank (2012) estimated that there was about 2.5 billion cubic meters (2.5G) of flare gas burned every year in Canada. Many actions have been taken against these practices. North Dakota is a typical city where so much flaring at night, making it as bright as other metropolises from space (Johnson Space Center, 2015).

Pioneer Energy’s Mobile Alkane Gas Separator system is a promising solution for this environmental problem. The MAGS system converts flare gas into products with economic value at site, and then separates into different streams for different purpose: valuable natural gas liquids could be stored and shipped to market for sale and methane substitutes for diesel fuel to run generators. The waste flare gas is completely recovered and purified in a cost effective way and will significantly result in slump in flaring and greenhouse emissions.

5. Conclusion

The connection between what Pioneer Energy and Pioneer Astronautics do for Mars and their applicability on Earth is the same chemical processing and mechanism behind. What underlies the technology transfer is the aim to make life better and improve energy supply. It is estimated that the quantity of oil extracted via the PERT system and the MAGS system accounts for more than 10% of drilled oil before in America (Johnson Space Center, 2015). The most prominent characteristics of these two projects are profitable and environmental-friendly compared with traditional oil drilling methods. Such life-profitable and industry-valuable technologies should be continued and improved further, creating more and more benefits.

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