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Waldo's comprehensive eclectic view of administration

2019-10-10 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Waldo's comprehensive eclectic view of administration,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了沃尔多的综合折中行政观。沃尔多是西方行政学发展历程中一位博学多产且极具影响力的行政学家,他不仅在西方行政学发展的历史研究方面造诣很深,而且对行政学内在本质也颇具见地。沃尔多首先认为,政治——行政二分法无论是作为现实的描述还是作为对行政行为的规定都是不恰当的,在他看来,传统行政学家所提出的现实问题并不是政治与行政是否应该分离,而是行政应将其决定价值观和政策的功能扩大到何种程度,但他们并没能为这个问题提供合适的答案。

Waldo western administrative science development is an erudite prolific and influential administrative scientist, he not only in the history of the development of western public administration research very accomplished, and the inherent nature of administrative science also considerable insight, he is actively advocate of western new public administration movement and participants, and is a creator in the field of public administration, but he is more of a critic and critic. This critical spirit is rare anywhere and anytime.

During the study of Waldo's comprehensive eclectic view of administration, I found that he criticized the traditional view of administration, which made me think deeply. Waldo think first, political - administrative dichotomy as the description of the reality and to the provisions of the administrative behavior is inappropriate, in his view, the traditional administrative experts have put forward the real question is not whether the political and administrative should be separated, but the function of the administrative decision values and policies should be expanded to what extent, but they didn't provide the right answer for the question; Secondly, Waldo criticized the rationalism tendency of traditional administrative organization theory, criticizing that traditional administrative theory overemphasized the commonality or so-called principle between organizations and ignored the concreteness as "administrative substance". Again, he accused the traditional administrative experts of the so-called "scientific" rely mainly on "stack", his chances for the development of administrative science reservations, but this is not to say that Waldo unnecessarily think science, but think the scientific method is not suitable for this kind of public administration involves to the theme of man's thinking and evaluation; Finally, Waldo opposed the traditional administrativist's overemphasis on efficiency. He claimed that although efficiency itself was not a value, efficiency was only a useful concept within the framework of consciously held values.

The development of public administration has gone through a long process. The traditional public administration model can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century. It is the longest and most successful theory in public administration. Whether as a theory or a practice, it has its own advantages. And up to now, the traditional administrative thought is still deeply rooted in our culture, and no other administrative thought has been unanimously considered to be able to completely replace the traditional administrative category. In this case, it is very difficult to break the theoretical framework of traditional administration from the perspective of oneself or society, but Waldo has done it. Is it not worth learning from this spirit of dare to criticize and dare to break through?

In China, a big country with a history of 5,000 years, the long history inheritance means more serious ideological constraints to some extent. Whether it is "ousting a hundred schools of thought and respecting Confucianism alone" or "preserving the principle of heaven and destroying human desire", Confucianism has become a tool for rulers to maintain feudal rule and control people's thoughts. After two years of absolute monarchy, coupled with the "closed door" of the qing dynasty, China was isolated from the world at that time, limited the development of advanced ideology and technology, and brought great difficulties to the liberation of the mind. The disastrous defeat in the mid-1890s caused Chinese scholars to have the experience of losing power and humiliating the country again after the fall of the southern song dynasty, and they were forced to reflect again. Chinese scholars realized in pain that they could not help themselves by rejecting foreign ideas and locking up the country. Since then, the process of ideological liberation of the Chinese nation began to face the world, hoping to seek new forces for China's liberation from the west. The revolution of 1911 overthrew the feudal autocratic rule of China for more than 2,000 years, thus providing a free and loose political environment for the ideological liberation movement. The ideas of gu yanwu and others in the late Ming dynasty and zhang taiyan and others in the late qing dynasty also paved the way for the ideological liberation. The advanced intellectuals of that period made a thorough criticism of the feudal autocracy and made a clear cry for pursuing democracy and science. But only to criticize is far from enough, but also combined with China's national conditions for analysis and application. In the practice of leading Chinese revolution, the Chinese communists represented by MAO zedong gradually explored a development path and general strategy of "encircling the cities in the countryside and seizing political power by armed forces" with Chinese characteristics. With the development of the revolutionary war, the people's armed forces and the base areas, victory was finally won throughout the country.

From the ancient feudal autocracy to the socialist society where the people are the masters of the country, it is not difficult to imagine how many difficulties and obstacles there are in the process of development. The most difficult and important is the emancipation of the mind. Our party's continuous development from victory to victory proves that, no matter in what era, breaking the shackles of thought is a necessary prerequisite for success. With the development of society, the shackles of feudal thought have been broken gradually, but when can the shackles of modern exam-oriented education be opened?

Chairman MAO once said, "the world is yours and ours, but in the final analysis it is yours. You young people are full of vigor and vitality. You are like the sun at eight or nine o 'clock in the morning. Hope is in you." However, the cramming method of examination-oriented education has limited children's best time to several test papers at one desk. This exam-oriented education mode and method limit the full play of students' ability, and passive learning firmly frames children's thoughts in the textbook. In the present exam-oriented education, the cultivation of critical thinking is still relatively neglected. In our daily teaching and home education, we tend to tell our children the answers directly, and tell them that these are the truth, there is no need to question and think, just remember them. Most children of this kind of education lack the ability of independent thinking, creativity, analysis and integration and critical thinking, which makes them out of step with the new trend of mass entrepreneurship and innovation. Imagine what would happen if a child who had been helped to walk ran alone. Similarly, how can young people who grow up under the exam-oriented education environment actively respond to the call of The Times and invest in the wave of innovation?

For contemporary college students, the ability and level of creative summation and critical and analytical thinking is an important reflection of their comprehensive quality and an important condition for them to adapt to the development needs of the era of knowledge economy. Therefore, contemporary college students should not only have critical thinking, but also be able to properly use critical thinking. Only by cultivating critical thinking ability, improve their cognitive level and ability of analysis, induction, can in the complex social life, for some about itself and the social hot issues to make timely and effective, appropriate analysis, and trying to solve it, thus to promote the development of knowledge economy society to make due contributions. These efforts in the classroom alone are not enough. After class, students should take the initiative to train and cultivate critical thinking skills so as to truly become the talents needed by the country.

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