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The flow theory

2019-09-16 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The flow theory,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了心流理论。人们在从事某项活动时,有时候会达到一种高度专注以致于废寝忘食的状态,这种现象称之为“心流”。米哈里·契克森米哈赖把心流体验的要素分成工作是可完成的、全神贯注、明确的目标、即时的反馈、自然投入并乐在其中、自由控制、忘我状态、时间感改变。在米哈里·契克森米哈赖的心流理论基础上,很多人对心流的特征或要素也进行了研究。心流是一种高度投入某项活动时全神贯注的积极情绪体验,当人们所从事的活动具有三个特点,即目标明确、即时反馈、技能-挑战相平衡时,容易出现心流体验。

Positive psychology is an important emerging field of psychological research at the end of the 20th century, which focuses on the study of people's positive emotions and personality. Flow theory is of great enlightenment to improve the effectiveness of the theme class meetings in middle schools, stimulate students' enthusiasm for participation, and cultivate their positive personality. The class meeting of mental health education in middle schools under the inspiration of psychological flow theory should pay attention to the moderate challenge and certain structure of the activities, and improve students' intrinsic motivation through immediate feedback and strengthening.

On December 22, 2018, vice minister of education ygdd specialists in the ministry of education of mental health education of primary and secondary schools in 2018 working meeting of the steering committee pointed out: "pays special attention to the psychological health education, primary and middle school students is directly related to the cultivation of healthy personality, on the moral cultivation of students' academic performance, and interpersonal communication, social integration and so on all have a direct and far-reaching influence. In order to implement the party's educational policy, implement the fundamental task of promoting morality and fostering people, and promote social harmony and stability, we should take mental health education as a basic and strategic work and integrate it into the overall planning of the education work, pay attention to the psychological status of every student, and help students develop a sound personality. "Guidance outline of mental health education in primary and secondary schools" also points out: "we should combine mental health education with headteacher work, class team activities, campus cultural and sports activities, social practice activities and other organic, make full use of the network and other modern information technology means, a variety of ways to carry out mental health education. As a special period of drastic physical and mental development, the importance of strengthening middle school students' mental health education is beyond doubt.

The theme class meeting is one of the important forms of middle school class education activities. It is usually a class meeting activity established and carried out around the theme by the head teacher according to the requirements of education and teaching and the actual situation of the class. However, at present, the efficiency of themed class meetings in middle schools is generally not high, which has a lot to do with the traditional mode of "focus on problems" and indoctrination and preaching. However, the effectiveness of this traditional mode in mental health education is more problematic. Positive psychology changes the tendency of traditional psychology to study psychological problems, and pays attention to people's positive qualities and positive emotional experience, which provides a different perspective for mental health education, namely, the cultivation and sustainable improvement of psychological ability of middle school students as the goal of mental health education. Positive psychology discusses how to explore people's potential, mobilize people's positive factors and keep individuals in a positive psychological state from the aspects of individual practice, individual cognitive change and individual evaluation of themselves. Flow, as an important part of positive psychology theory, has valuable enlightenment to improve the effectiveness of the class meeting on mental health education in middle schools.

Mihaly csikszentmihalyi, a positive psychologist in the United States, first focused on this phenomenon. He called this unique psychological experience "flow" and named the theory "optimal experience psychology". M harry chuck's m ha lai in his masterpiece the flow, the optimal experience psychology, there is a vivid language to describe the "flow" : it is like a sailor, clenched cable drum of canvas, let the sea breeze blowing hair, feel the joy of ship plowed, sails, boat, the wind and the sea, in the blood vessel of sailors leads to a harmonious resonance. He went on to divide the flow experience into eight components: work is achievable, focus, clear goals, immediate feedback, natural engagement and enjoyment, freedom of control, self-absorption, and a sense of time change. In the handbook of later positive psychology, mihaly csikszentmihalyi argues that flow features include: intense attention to immediate activities; Integration of behavior and consciousness; Loss of self-awareness; A sense of control over behavior, that is, being able to respond appropriately and effectively to the current situation and knowing how to react next; Temporary distortions of time, typically much faster than usual; Experience the intrinsic meaning of the activity, the ultimate goal is the continuous motivation of the activity.

Based on mihaly csikszentmihalyi's flow theory, many people have studied the characteristics or elements of flow. Novak and Hoffman, for example, grouped flow characteristics into three groups: premises, characteristics, and results of experience.

In addition, some domestic researchers also focus on the flow of all the most critical part of the constituent elements, such as some scholars believe that flow is a kind of highly engaged an activity when the concentration of positive emotional experience, when people are engaged in activities has three characteristics, namely the clear goal, the immediate feedback, skills - challenge phase equilibrium, prone to flow. In fact, we can see that although there are differences, the connotation and components of flow are generally consistent, and they all believe that flow, as an important concept in positive psychology, contains rich theoretical connotation and practical enlightenment.

Mental health education theme class meetings is a form of growth group psychological counseling, and truly effective group psychological counseling is not just the simple "implant" concept, preaching by instilling and is therefore difficult to pragmatic, more important is through various activities to make students in the process of understanding and experience unconsciously identification and internalization. This kind of experiential theme class meeting is far more effective than the traditional class meeting head teacher singing "monologue". The experiential themed class meeting is a kind of themed class meeting in the school education and teaching environment, which is designed by teachers and students according to certain educational purposes, and organized by group activities. Students participate in the experience, communicate and share, and improve their perception. The integration of flow experience not only enables students to focus on class meeting activities, but also enables them to know and develop themselves in the activity experience.

Flow experience is a state of natural focus on activities, so the effectiveness of class activities can be greatly improved if students can experience this kind of flow. Because psychological common sense tells us that when external things meet our subjective needs, it will arouse our positive and affirmative emotional feelings; On the contrary, it will cause negative and negative emotional feelings, and different feelings have different effects on the efficiency of our activities. Flow, as a naturally engaged and enjoyable state of experience, can greatly enhance the effect of activities by arousing such joyful emotions and emotions as a sailor setting sail and plaving the waves.

Fredrickson believed that positive emotions must have adaptive meaning different from negative emotions, and accordingly proposed the concept of thought-action repertoire, which refers to the integrated system of cognition and behavior. Fredrickson, narrow cognitive behavioral reserves with negative sentiment of instant relative range on the contrary, positive emotions are extensions of cognitive behavioral reserves, the cognition and behavior of the individual system more open and flexible, which can lead to the steady accumulation of positive emotions, has risen in a spiral, individual lasting development in the process of the resource construction, this is known as the extension construction theory of positive emotions. Therefore, when teachers adopt the form of experiential themed class meetings and create situations in activities to promote students' flow experience, the effectiveness of themed class meetings can be effectively improved.

Generally speaking, human nature seeks pleasure and avoids suffering. As bentham pointed out in his magnum opus introduction to the principles of morality and legislation, "nature puts human beings under the control of two masters -- pleasure and pain. Only they tell us what we ought to do and decide what we shall do. It is the criterion of right and wrong, the link between cause and effect." Therefore, middle school teachers in the design and implementation of mental health education theme class activities, should try to create a situation to let students in the real experience of happiness on the basis of cultivating positive emotions, strengthen positive behavior. And as part of the positive psychology, the flow is a kind of happy mood positive emotion under a optimal experience, try to design in the experiential theme class meeting can make students produce flow class activities, can build a relaxed and happy atmosphere, lets the student in maintaining a positive and happy mood, so can effectively improve the enthusiasm of students.

Under the background of exam-oriented education, middle school students are under heavy academic pressure and psychological pressure, and lack of rest time. Creating flow experiences in themed classes can help students "lose their sense of time", and the worries and frustrations of daily life can be temporarily removed. Because this kind of experiential theme class meeting can make students feel their own subject status in the form of joint participation; Fun and interesting activities allow students to participate voluntarily, and exercise and improve themselves. M harry chuck's m ha lai of teenagers have a four-year flow study found that after taking part in school activities, those who are actively engaged and more sweat flow experience less teenagers experience anxiety, he thought the continuous flow can not only improve the students' intrinsic interest in activities, but also for the incremental effect of positive emotions. Experiential theme party take the student as the main body, the form is novel, was extremely attractive for middle school students, if I can blend in flow theory of experiential theme class meeting, not only can help students reduce anxiety, relax, also can let students have benefited feeling, to think, their enthusiasm to participate in theme class meeting naturally increased.

Positive psychology research on personality in accordance with its usual practice, advocates personality psychology research should not only study the personality formation of the negative factors, more dedicated to the study personality formation of the positive factors, especially the study of human positive reality and potential ability in the role of personality development, namely the positive personality, and promote the individual's positive experience is the most effective way to cultivate positive personality. Flow theory is an important research field of positive psychology, which also pays attention to the happy and fulfilling feelings when people experience flow. Class meetings take activities as the main form of class meetings. As the main body of class meetings, students can participate in activities, but they may not have positive experience. So if you combine flow theory with an experiential class, you can have an experiential class that is both physical and mental: not only do students experience it, but they experience it positively. In this way, we can make better use of class meeting time to mobilize students' positive emotional experience, help students discover their potential and value, so as to build confidence step by step and cultivate students' positive personality.

According to massimini and cary, when we are at "high" levels of challenge and skill, we are more likely to experience flow, to be more focused than usual, to feel in control, happy, powerful, positive, engaged, creative, free, excited, open, clear, and satisfied. In design class activities, so we must choose challenging and have certain skills sexual activities, so as to fully arouse the enthusiasm of students, stimulate students' interest, and let all students to participate in class activities and generate flow, so as to improve the participation of class activities, to all the students are able to to touch and feel the effects of class activities.

On the other hand, the challenge is modest. Mihaly csikszentmihalyi's first component of flow experience is "work can be done." That is to say, a certain amount of challenge can stimulate our concentration and creativity, which is conducive to flow, but if the challenge is too big, beyond the limit of what we can accomplish, it will backfire. According to the yerkes-dodson law of psychology, activities at the medium level of motivation are most effective when completing moderately difficult tasks; Overly complex and difficult tasks actually reduce motivation and productivity.

Not all appropriately challenging activities can generate flow experience, and some activities are required to have certain structural characteristics, that is, "activities should have definite goals, clear rules and corresponding evaluation criteria, that is to say, activities should be operable and evaluable". In the class meeting of mental health education theme in middle school, teachers should pay special attention to what is the goal of the class meeting in the design stage, and determine the corresponding activities according to the goal. At the same time, we should pay attention to the possible problems of these activities, so as to make corresponding rules from the details.

The implementation stage of the class meeting should also pay attention to make flexible adjustments according to the objectives. The design phase is just a plan, but the reality is that all kinds of problems and emergencies may occur. Regardless of the reality, blindly follow the set structure and activity arrangement, will inevitably affect the activity efficiency. In addition, the end of the class meeting should pay attention to the evaluation of the effect, so as to improve the structure, content and details in the future themed class meeting activities.

Immediate feedback and reinforcement can effectively and continuously motivate students' inner motivation, and such feedback and reinforcement are not necessarily just rewards. Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to enjoy the activity rather than to participate in it for reward or to avoid punishment. When people engage in activities characterized by intrinsic motivation, they only focus on the activity itself, because the activity itself is a reward and motivation, and they seldom care about the purpose of the activity to achieve. Therefore, driven by intrinsic motivation and guided by it can trigger flow experience. If class meeting activities can not really stimulate students' inner motivation, even if the external motivation is strong enough, it is easy to give up halfway or too strong competitive heart lead to some excessive behavior and affect the friendship between students.

We do everything with a purpose and a desire for feedback, whether it's to get praise from others, to get something out of it, or to develop our abilities and personality. The activity design of the class meeting should also pay attention to this point, the experience, feelings and ideas at that time, this is relatively short, can not be maintained for a long time, if the students can not receive timely feedback and reinforcement at that time, the class meeting may not be over, the students have forgotten all the feelings.

Positive psychology focuses on the development of people in normal state, that is, the research direction of people's positive psychological quality, which has a very important value for changing the traditional class meeting's attention to problems and negative aspects. Flow experience is an optimal experience under this positive psychology paradigm. If the themed class meeting of middle school mental health education can design and implement activity education inspired by flow theory, its effectiveness can be greatly improved. Of course, focusing on positive qualities does not mean that negative emotions and emotions have no educational value, which is another important theoretical and practical topic. This paper only emphasizes that positive psychology and flow theory should and can produce important enlightenment and necessary and beneficial supplement to the theme class of mental health education in middle schools, so it cannot be ignored.

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