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The art of storytelling in film

2019-08-22 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The art of storytelling in film,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了电影的叙事艺术。电影艺术的影像思维与人类的语言叙述类似。电影的本质就是在讲述故事,通过故事来表达导演的思想与观念,观众是否读懂了这个故事,接受了导演所传达的思想才是一部电影成功与否的关键。所以说电影的本体就是叙事的艺术,伴随着电影不断的积累和发展,电影的叙事艺术中形成了许多种叙事的形式和结构,不同的叙事手法形成了不同的电影风格和艺术效果。

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In 1969, zvitan todorov, a famous French structuralist semiotic and literary theorist, first put forward the concept of "narratology", which mainly studies the science of narrative works. Narrative, we understand it literally, is to tell or state one or more actual or fictional events. A complete narrative is a whole of events, including the beginning and the end, so narratology is to study the nature, form and function of narrative, and more specifically to study the relationship between "narrative" and "event". Later, French scholar Gerard genette successively published the first, second and third episodes of "ci ge". In his works, genette began to study the various categories of narratology. Knight in the heat of the proposed theory, mainly discusses the syntax in narrative voice and narrative time, he proposed the narrator can follow their own will, according to his be fond of reorganization, arrangement of narrative time, also can freely change the narrative method and narrative speed, and don't have completely in accordance with the natural order. Gernett's theory of narratology laid a solid theoretical foundation for later narrative studies and the development of film narrative art, especially the relationship between narrators and time and the Angle of narrators he discussed.

With the further development of modern narratology theory, the theory of film art also has a new theoretical direction because of its influence. From the 1960s, the modern film theory took shape and developed rapidly. The emergence of film semiotics represents a revolution in modern film theory. Film semiotics regards film art as a special ideographic image. As a new branch of film art research, film narrate, as one of its research directions, also began to flourish gradually, which led to the adoption of narrate to analyze and study film art by many researchers at that time. The "eight combinations theory" put forward by French scholar Christian metz is a practical method of film narrative analysis established by film semiotics. Among his theory, he began to discuss the use of analysis of film on the narrative function of the various possibilities, Michael's theories to some extent, is seen as a movie narrative structure in the study of narrative art is an important achievement, but in the end is considered by some scholars have the suspicion of formalism, not widely promoted.

In the 1970s, a large number of newcomers emerged in the research field of film specialty and academic research field of other disciplines all over the world. With the joint efforts of these scholars, the study of film narrate ushered in a "new wave", during which a series of works and academic articles sprang up like mushrooms. For example, French scholar alain beilgara's introduction to the semiotics of video narration, Francis vanueva's written narration, film narration, and Andre gardi's film narration research, etc. Stories and discourse: narrative structure in novels and films by Seymour chatman, a British scholar; The gaze of the gaze: film and its audience by francesco cassetti, an Italian scholar. In addition, some academic journals have also added fuel to the fire and successively launched special journals on film narrative research, such as "analysis of narrative structure", "statement and film", etc., thus reaching a new climax in the study of world film narratology.

American scholar David podwell has made a comprehensive discussion and research on the art of film narration. In his narrative in feature films published in 1985, he comprehensively discussed the content of film narrative art, including issues such as viewpoints, the principle of narration, the relationship between narration and time, and the relationship between narration and space. Poldwell's research on film narrative art integrates the theoretical achievements of a series of previous scholars, mainly focusing on the narrative art of American Hollywood films. Although poldwell's film narrative theory does not propose new narrative rules and methods, his theory can be verified by texts because he takes actual film and television works as the research object. Therefore, his theory is more practical and persuasive than other scholars' theories. Podwell's theory also marks a new stage in the development of contemporary film narrative theory.

On the whole, the film narrative mainly focuses on the function of the narrator, and also attaches importance to the receiver, that is, the important role of the audience in the story construction. It can be said that the film attaches more importance to the role of the receiver than the text narration. Because film and television works rely more on the audience's understanding and participation, the film narrative art we want to study is actually how to tell the audience the film text, tell the audience what; What you want the audience to understand; Film and television works to achieve what kind of narrative purpose, in this series of process, the birth of film and television narrative art.

When we study the narrative art of movies, we first start with the narrator. Then who is the storyteller in the movie? How is he different from the narrator in literature? When we watch movies and TV programs, we are not aware that someone is telling us a story, so how does the narrator pretend to be himself?

Obviously, in the narrative art of film, the narrator is an abstract existence, like a mirage, if there is no, it seems to hide behind the film text, or exist in the film text. We may think that the author of the film is the narrator, or the main actor in the film, but these are not exactly the narrator. In the movies, we often see some pictures there are subtitles, such as "the Dunkirk," subtitles tip out of the air for an hour, the sea one day, a week on land, and the film will appear voice prompt, the voice is not in the movie actor, not the audience know, just for a reminder, discuss the role of the audience. For example, the narration in "Buddha plus" and "sea pianist", the subtitles and narration on these pictures actually indicate that there is an actual narrator behind the film, but this narrator is too vague to attract our attention. Subtitle, sound or other factors are all the means of the narrator. We can regard the narrator as a concept, which is an abstract and fictional object shown in the film text. Just like the audience, the audience already exists after a film is shot, no matter whether there is an audience or not. So does the narrator, who exists only at the narrative level of the film. On the level of film and television narrative art, the author believes that narrative and acceptance can be divided into two levels: story level: the story level in the film is the most basic, the most obvious and opinion level. Let's take life of PI as an example. In the film, PI, a middle-aged man, tells his story with the writer as the main driving force. Most of the paragraphs in the film are about PI's memories. Mr. PI's main task in the film is to tell stories, develop and explain, and make sure the writer believes him. So on this level, it's easy to feel that the middle-aged are the narrators and the writers are the listeners. Narrative: the narrator at this level is the fictional, abstract being we've been talking about. In the text of a film, the process of narration is nothing more than the process of a virtual narrator conveying information to the virtual recipients. Some scholars believe that, just as most film and television works do not reveal narrative traces, the presentation mode of self-display by images is "narration of others". However, in fact, no matter whether there is a narrator in the picture or not, the film has its own presentation mode, but we attach the concept of person in consciousness to the perceived narrator in the picture.

In his theoretical research of narratology, genette once proposed that the meaning of narration is actually a game between the narrator and time, and how the narrator arranges time is the key and fun of this game. Different from other literary arts or dramatic arts, film and television arts can only reflect the existence of narrative when time is redesigned and arranged. Those artistic styles that follow the natural sequence of time are not narrative at all. Therefore, narrative time in film art is the foundation of narrative art.

In film and television narrative art, there are three different forms of narrative time, which are broadcast time, narrative time and psychological time. Consider an example of a plot, such as a 100-meter race: the fact that the run from the start to the finish is 10 seconds is narrative time; But we shot the final sprint at high speed, and this shot may show 20 seconds, which is the playback time; What happens between a few breaths, but the receiver feels a long time psychologically, that's mental time. Therefore, the picture can not only reproduce time, but also has the function of creating time.

In real life, we all know that time develops linearly and irreversibly, at least for the moment, but in film and television works, time can be controlled and transformed. The narrator always arranges time according to the way he is interested in, presenting a variety of complex time patterns. It only gives the audience a sense or imagination of the continuity of psychological time, but in fact it is fragmented and disrupted. We can get a feel for it through the combination of several shots. Scene 1: the invigilator stands in the examination room; Scene 2: during an exam, two students hand in their papers and leave. Scene 3: students walk out of the teaching building. Such a combination of shots will make the receiver think that this is a continuous action process, the end of the exam, leaving the teaching building. But it leaves out all the time from the classroom to the corridor, from the corridor to the outside, where time is compressed. In the change of the picture, each time the lens switch is actually a change in time and space. If the dialogue or content retained by the picture can make the recipient feel the audiovisual coherence, then the natural psychological sense of time is also coherent. But the same content may have another meaning if the narrator rearranges it in a different way. For example: lens a: the invigilator stands in the examination room; Scene 2: during an exam, two students hand in their papers and leave. Scene 3: students walk out of the teaching building; Lens four: the invigilator stands in the examination room. After we use the content of lens 1 separately, although the lens length is the same, it gives the receivers the feeling that the exam is not over yet. The psychological narrative time in the audience has been extended. If repeat this same lens again after, namely lens a: the invigilator stands in the examination room; Scene 2: during an exam, two students hand in their papers and leave. Scene 3: students walk out of the teaching building; Lens four: the invigilator stands in the examination room; Lens five: a few students sporadic out of the teaching building; Lens six: the invigilator still stands in the examination room. The result of such arrangement will let the receiver realize the emotional meaning of the time. The audience will feel that this exam has taken too long. Although we only inserted ten seconds of video length, these scenes represent the time process of the big paragraphs omitted in the audience's mind. The audience will rely on their own audio-visual experience, automatically connect these fragments together, resulting in the feeling of a long time. This also shows how the discontinuous fragments in the picture form a continuous feeling in the audience's mind.

In the narrative time of film and television works, we mainly study the arrangement of narrative sequence and the transformation of narrative time, which are mainly reflected in the treatment of time in film and television works. Based on the author's summary of previous shooting activities and analysis of materials, the time processing in film and television narration can be roughly divided into the following ways for discussion:

Extension: this is one of the most common ways of handling time, similar to the exam-shot arrangement example mentioned above. By means of montage editing technique, the action or event that happens in a few minutes in the actual time is extended to scenes of more than ten minutes or even several hours through repeated switching, repeated use or high-speed photography. Then this is the extension of time. In film and television narration, this processing mode is mainly used to render atmosphere or show characters' emotions. Such as the interrogation of German prisoners of war in the film inglourious basterds, this method is used in many places.

Compression: there must be a corresponding extension of the processing mode, a film can be extended time, so it can also be told through editing days, years, or even hundreds of years of time compression in a segment. The means of time compression are relatively simple, and the main methods are as follows: fragment omission. If a movie wants to tell a story in a long period of real time within one or two hours, it can't contain all the real time in the movie. It keeps the useful fragments, actions and other key representative actions, and omits the irrelevant and redundant parts. In the film "the last emperor", which tells the legendary story of puyi's life, it chooses the method of fragment omission, and chooses the most representative and contradictory passages to depict and express. Insert lens. The displacement of space is an important indicator of the length of compression time. During a certain period of motion, a relevant lens is inserted to replace the omitted time. In the film legend of Sicily, there is a scene in which the little boy keeps thinking about marlena during the day class and is absent-minded. Then a scene of marlena is inserted, and the next scene is the little boy in bed. The combination of these three shots allows the receiver to follow the little boy into his imagination and ignore the actual time, so as to compress the actual time. To indicate the omission of time by means of something that implies changes in time. We often see incense used to indicate time in ancient costume films. For example, in the plot of "xiuchun dao", shen lian burned the archive of documents and measured the time with a wick of incense, which burned out to indicate the end of a period of time.

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