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Russian diplomacy

2019-08-20 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Russian diplomacy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了俄罗斯的外交策略。基于苏联末期国力大幅下降以及国内的激烈政治斗争,时任苏联总统戈尔巴乔夫政府迫于局势采取了以“新思维外交”为总路线的外交政策。在这种政策之下,苏联以战略收缩换取美国与西方国家的信任与态势的缓和;而西方国家则趁人之危地以经济援助作为要挟,要求苏联以其意志为原则进行改革。戈尔巴乔夫适应了这种要求,并尽其所能讨取西方的欢心。尽管如此,但西方国家对于俄罗斯也存在较大的隐性经济制约。

Russian diplomacy,俄罗斯外交策略,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Another notable sign of Russia's declining international standing was the dissolution of the Warsaw pact. The Warsaw pact is the Soviet version of NATO, a political and military alliance dominated by the Soviet union. The organization and its integration of force in the 1970 s in actually gives the Soviet military and political power control the eastern European countries, in the aim of the Warsaw treaty with clear description "if anything happened in the European countries or groups of countries attack against one or more parties, each party should according to article 51 of the United Nations charter to exercise the right of individual or collective self-defence, individually or by agreement with the other contracting state, with all it thinks necessary, including the use of the armed forces, immediately to suffer the attack of a certain country or several countries to give assistance. It ensured that the Soviet union was in a superior position to conventional military power against any western country and NATO as a whole.

However, with the upheaval of the Soviet union and eastern Europe, the basis of the existence of the Warsaw pact no longer exists; On July 1, 1991, the parties to the Warsaw pact held a meeting in Prague and announced the official dissolution of the organization. While the military integration of the commonwealth of independent states (cis) promoted by Russia is an alternative to the Warsaw pact, great obstacles have been encountered within the relevant scope. In order to achieve complete independence and maintain their sovereignty, countries have taken over the weapons and equipment and military facilities that were originally owned by the Soviet union after establishing the "joint armed command". Ukraine, in particular, under the national defense and armed forces act on the basis of the three military command of the Soviet union established army in Ukraine, and moldova, azerbaijan and turkmenistan slavish, commonwealth of independent states (cis) keep unified military strategy space and had actually cannot achieve armed forces, and within the commonwealth of independent states (cis) has been signed by the military and defense agreement, within the commonwealth of independent states (cis) countries where the environment is also equal to almost a dead letter. So far, in other words, Russia has not regained the ability to guarantee victory in a head-on military confrontation with NATO.

Russia lost more than half of its gross domestic product between 1991 and 1998, according to the data, making it a third-world country in a short period of time and dropping from centre stage to the periphery. The main reason for the negative effect was the shock therapy vigorously promoted by the Russian government dominated by yeltsin and gaidar.

Due to the sharp decline of the national strength and the fierce political struggle in the end of the Soviet union, the then Soviet President gorbachev's government adopted the foreign policy of "new thinking diplomacy" under the pressure of the situation. Under this policy, the Soviet union exchanged strategic contraction for trust and detente between the United States and western countries. The west took advantage of the crisis by threatening economic aid and demanding that the Soviet union reform according to its will. Gorbachev adapted and did his best to please the west. A series of concessions weakened the political unity of the Soviet union, and gorbachev looked to the west to solve the problem. But the Soviet union at the expense greatly diplomacy, in the gulf war, the Soviet union lost only one of a good friend of the Soviet union - Iraq, this also means that abandoned the Soviet union is an important part of the political interests in the Middle East, and even to the security council resolution of 12 against Iraq threw favour, in return for political and economic support in the western countries. Nevertheless, western countries also have large implicit economic constraints on Russia. For example, the energy crisis at the end of the 20th century led to the decline of Soviet oil exports, which made the Soviet economy worse.

After the collapse of the Soviet union, yeltsin's government largely inherited this policy. Of course, it had something to do with Russia's deteriorating economy, but the shock therapy that followed dragged the country into the mire. Tensions between the NPC and the government grew almost out of control, and between the speaker, mikhail hasbratov, and Boris yeltsin. To stabilize the country, the cash-strapped yeltsin government again turned to the west for help. At the behest of the west, Russia has become a vassal, a slavish follower, far removed from its traditional Allies. For yeltsin's administration, China and its neighbors were unable to give Russia the same support as the west, and economic stability was the lifeline that kept Russia's domestic economic system and even its political situation from collapsing. "Weighing the pros and cons," Russia "without hesitation" to the west.

Russia's inheritance of new thinking diplomacy and kozyrev's line ran through the yeltsin years. But when Mr Putin was formally elected President in 2000, the mainstream of Russian diplomacy changed. That suggests a nascent shift in Russian foreign policy.

Mr Putin's rise to power marks the re-emergence of the strongman gene in Russia's blood. Mr Putin campaigned on the slogan "give me 20 years and give you back a strong Russia", and new-thinking diplomacy and kozyrev's over-reliance on the west and its weak diplomatic posture are clearly at odds with Mr Putin's ultimate goal of restoring Russia's superpower status. In addition, a very real problem is that Russia's ingratiation to the western countries did not get the expected return, but was "used as a gun" by the western countries, which contributed to the rise of Russian nationalism and the reflection of the authorities. Moreover, Russia's efforts to allow American troops to stay in its traditional sphere of influence in return for improved relations with America have come to naught, leaving many potential threats in its neighbourhood. All this made Russia realize the loss of its real interests and the compression of its sphere of influence, and finally changed its diplomatic course. After putin came to power, he began to reshape and stabilize the political situation and economic environment, and achieved remarkable results. Putin insisted that Russia always adhere to the Soviet era of high social welfare, to ensure that the Russian people have a high sense of national identity of Russia.

Foreign minister sergei lavrov has said Russia's diplomatic achievements are "first and foremost due to the growth of Russia's national strength and sustained economic development." Before 2012, Russia has been one of the countries with the fastest economic growth rate. Before 2006, the average growth rate of GDP was even as high as 7%, which increased from 19.906 billion dollars in 1999 to 989.31 billion dollars in 2006, and then exceeded 1 trillion dollars and reached 1.3 trillion dollars in 2007. In particular, Russia's economy is based on energy, aerospace and military industries-on the one hand, this confirms that Russia's industrial structure remains Stalinist; Russia, on the other hand, has hardly any bubble in its output, all of it in manufacturing. This means that the possibility of a major crisis in Russia's own economic system is not obvious and objectively quite stable. Although Russia has seen GDP growth slow in recent years as a result of rising oil prices and western sanctions, it still has a much stronger economic base than before. At the same time, China's large imports of natural gas and production cuts in major Middle East oil supplier countries, international energy prices are rising steadily, which will be extremely beneficial to Russia's economic development in the next five or ten years.

With its economic rise, Russia has set out to restore its power on all fronts, especially its military. Russia's record in the two chechen wars suggests that before Mr Putin came to power, the army was deeply bureaucratic, poorly equipped and deeply corrupt, even smuggling weapons to the enemy. As its economy strengthened, Russia quickly reorganized its military and equipped it with a host of new weapons -- including the world's only fourth-generation main battle tank, the t-14, and a range of armored vehicles based on its chassis, as well as a number of world-leading long-range strike weapons. There are even haiyan nuclear-powered cruise missiles -- weapons with near-infinite ranges and unpredictable flight paths, as well as hitherto impenetrable cruising speeds. In order to focus on performance achieved great breakthrough in the field of military, Russia in the baikal region chu gore held a training ground's largest since the "west - 81" exercise "east - 2018" military exercise, in more than 300000 people, more than 1000 various aircraft, 36000 sets of equipment in vehicles, ships nearly 80, and won great success. Before this, in 2014, the Russian military intervention in eastern Ukraine showed highly modern equipment and based on the traditional and high-tech armored forces tactics, and quickly shattered the same the Ukrainian army of Soviet military inheritance of resistance, prompted the Crimean peninsula independent and incorporated into Russia. Domestic political stability, military and economic strength of the great enhancement, coupled with the power of the energy market brought a lot of foreign exchange, constitute the internal factors of Russia's foreign policy change.

First, Russia's foreign policy towards the west has been a failure for quite some time and has resulted in a severe squeeze on its international space, which has been mentioned before. In addition, the us and Europe continue to pursue the policy of "containing Russia and weakening Russia", which makes Russia realize that its strategic intention of uniting with the west is no longer possible.

Second, Germany, Russia's relative ally in Western Europe, has undergone a relatively obvious change of position after the fall of schroder and is increasingly in line with the United States and other western European countries, exerting pressure on Russia.

In contrast, Russia, taking advantage of the deep conflicts between the United States and the islamic world and north Korea, tries to play the role of mediator as a great power, and takes an active and different position from the United States on the nuclear issue of Iran and north Korea, which also constitutes the motivation of its diplomatic thinking change.

In addition, Russia is refocusing on its traditional Allies, notably the commonwealth of independent states, China and India. The stability of the relationship with cis can expand Russia's power and influence its strategic depth, while the stability of russia-china and russia-india relations enables Russia to gain the support of a regional power and a quasi-global power.

The above four points, taking the criticism of the us invasion of Iraq and the setback of the unilateral hegemony of the us as an opportunity, constitute the main international reasons for the adjustment of Russia's diplomatic strategy. At the Munich conference in 2007, Mr. Putin publicly accused the United States of "unabashedly using power" in international affairs and laid out Russia's demands for an international order: "a just and democratic world order that guarantees the security and wealth of all, not just a few." From this point of view, Russia officially began to change its foreign policy.

In a nutshell, Russia's diplomacy shifted from kozyrev's line to the two-headed eagle policy. In other words, it shifted from blindly leaning to the west to accommodate east and west, and gradually turned its eyes to the whole world.

Russia's relations with Europe and the United States have been fundamentally changed and improved, although the course of development has not been smooth. But, from Mr Obama's visit to Russia, the Russian beauty "civilian nuclear cooperation agreement" and Russia's "four" common space "" as you can see, from the us and Europe, Russia has its status from, and became its equivalence, attaches great importance to the political existence in the us and Europe, and Russia in the g8 and g20 position and function also illustrates this point. In addition, because Russia's relations with the west because of the strength of the Russian expansion strained again, on some problems of the us and Europe, Russia will keep its toughness - for example, in the face of the British diplomatic storm and government for its trump charges "intervention in the mid-term elections," Russia's attitude is very tough, but also retain the settlement space.

On the other hand, Russia has strengthened ties with China and India. China and Russia established a strategic partnership of coordination in 1996, signed the treaty of good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation between China and Russia in 2001, and established a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination featuring equality, trust, mutual support, common prosperity and friendship from generation to generation in 2011. In 2014, the china-russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination entered a new stage. The two countries have maintained frequent high-level exchanges, established the practice of annual exchange of visits by heads of state, and established mechanisms of exchanges and cooperation at various levels, including prime ministers' meetings, parliamentary cooperation committees, energy, investment, humanities, economy and trade, local governments, law enforcement and strategic security. The two sides have supported each other on issues concerning national sovereignty, security, territorial integrity, development and other core interests, and their positions on major international events have become increasingly close. For example, China and Russia proposed to "relax" UN sanctions against north Korea. Russia-india ties are tied to arms and energy trade, with Russia seeing India as an important market for its arms and energy exports and India as a supplier of cheap and quality arms. At the same time, Russia and India are both brics countries, and are recognized as one of the two major brics countries, which makes the relations between Russia, China and India have a good foundation for common development.

Russia also values its relations with the commonwealth of independent states and has made considerable progress in recent years. Russia, belarus, kazakhstan and kyrgyzstan established a customs union in 1995 and reorganized it into the organization for Eurasian economic cooperation in 2000. The cis counter-terrorism centre regulations were also approved in the same year. Russia became a member of the central Asian cooperation organization in 2005 and integrated it with the European economic cooperation organization. All are dominated by Russia. Belarus, on the other hand, has always been a loyal ally of Russia and played a key role in promoting the integration within the framework of the cis dominated by Russia.

For some countries with traditional conflicts of interest, Russia has taken a moderately tough line -- imposing sanctions on Turkey immediately after it shot down a Russian jet, for example; And insisted on Russian sovereignty over the kuril islands. However, Russia will not be locked in a rut when faced with a common threat, but will be flexible in shifting its position and adopting a targeted response strategy.

In general, Russia's diplomatic strategy shifted from passive acceptance to active influence, and gradually drew closer to the great power diplomacy in the Soviet era. It can be predicted that in the not too far future, the rise of Russia and the rise of its overall national strength will surely bring a bigger main force to Russia's foreign policy, which will also become more independent.

In a word, Russia and China are similar in many aspects, and Russia's foreign policy adjustment has considerable reference and reference value for our country. Russia's foreign policy in the 1990s was well in line with its own reality. After entering the new millennium, it became more flexible. Therefore, we should realize that the policy of excessive dependence on western countries that Russia once insisted on is extremely undesirable for a regional power, and it is also a precedent that most third world countries seeking independent development should see.

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