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Welfare for the elderly in Japan

2019-08-19 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Welfare for the elderly in Japan,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了日本老年人的福利保障。日本公共养老保险制度的基础年金主要由国民养老保险年金、共济年金、厚生养老年金三大部分构成。政府主要负责国民公共养老基础年金的运营。近几十年来,老人的医疗保险费支出逐渐上升。2000年,日本政府采用了一种新型的老年社会保险制度,实行了《老人介护保险法》,该制度规定国民从40岁开始交纳老年介护保险金,等年龄到达65岁以上且需护理的老人,可获得保障,或者40岁以上未满65岁的特定疾病需要护理者也可享受保障待遇。运行老年介护保险制度不但保障了老年人的生活,同时促进了各类养老服务业的产业化、规模化发展。

With the increase of the number of the elderly, China is rapidly entering the aging society. However, Japan has built up a relatively mature old-age security system in the face of this phenomenon. The improvement of the social old-age security system in Japan is closely related to its population and economic development. For China, a country with a large population, it is necessary to study the course of Japan's social security system.

In the early 1960s, Japan's welfare system for the aged was a kind of government-run mechanism. This way of carrying out policies through state compulsion was indeed the most effective in the initial formation of the welfare system for the aged. However, faced with the fact that people's life expectancy is increasing and public welfare equipment and social services are diversified, from the perspective of the government, if all kinds of social welfare expenses are still provided by them, it will certainly bring great difficulties to the national finance. Therefore, the government has appropriately adjusted the financial burdens and responsibilities of some central and local governments, public and private funds. Starting from the mid-1970s, Japan's national welfare administration showed a weakening trend and gradually transferred to local governments, so that grass-roots organizations in Japan could develop social welfare undertakings for the elderly with characteristics according to local conditions. In the 1980s, the development of civil welfare and volunteer activities began.

According to the situation of the elderly population entering the old age, Japan launched the "longevity society strategy outline" in June 1986, as the central and local government policy on the development of longevity society. In the 80 s, Japan's economic recovery, to take this opportunity, before aging degree not peaked, released in December 1989, "the old man health benefits to promote strategic plan for 10 years, mainly from official as the main body of the plan's welfare countermeasures and set up 70 billion yen in longevity welfare social funds as the main content, from established the state on the longevity of the policy of" health care medical benefits "service.

Since the 1990s, as Japan's economy slowed, unemployment rose and the number of elderly people grew, the government has gradually changed its social welfare programs. The change is mainly reflected in: first, the change of the guarantee object. From part of the elderly in extreme poverty to all the elderly as the protection objects; Second, the transformation from the state to the state, local, non-governmental organizations and individuals to take full responsibility for security; Third, the transformation from only relying on large social institutions for the elderly to meet the needs of welfare services for the elderly to a variety of welfare institutions as the main body, based on home services. Meanwhile, according to the law on social welfare, Japan has successfully introduced social welfare legal persons.

The basic pension system of Japan's national public pension started from the national pension law promulgated in the late 1950s. The law requires Japanese citizens aged from 20 to 60 to participate in the national pension system. If they have paid an annuity for 25 years and reached the age of 65, they can receive pension regularly. And civilian enterprise still can attend "thick unripe endowment insurance", officeholder still has "mutual endowment insurance can attend". The specific operation is the initial government contribution of 11.1 billion yen, after that, the national Treasury will bear 1/3 of the total cost, and the rest of the cost will be borne by the industry and individuals.

The basic annuity of Japan's public endowment insurance system mainly consists of three parts: national endowment insurance annuity, mutual aid annuity and pension for social welfare. The government is mainly responsible for the operation of basic pension funds for public pension. It is found that the basic pension is the main source of income for the elderly in Japan. In addition, the Japanese government promulgated the "elderly welfare law" in the early 1960s, which proposed that the government build special nursing homes for the frail elderly such as dementia and bedridden.

As Japan's population ages and the number of newborns declines since the 1990s, it has become increasingly difficult for families to take care of the elderly. The cost of medical insurance for the elderly is rising gradually. In 2000, the Japanese government has adopted a new kind of old age social insurance system, implemented "the old man lie insurance law, the provisions from 40 people began to pay the old interface insurance, such as the age of 65 years of age or older and need to care of the old man, can be guaranteed, or under the age of 65 over 40 specific diseases need caregivers also can enjoy treatment of security. Referral service is divided into 5 levels according to the degree of referral, and each level enjoys its own insurance benefits. Individuals pay only 10% of the cost. Running the elderly care insurance system not only guarantees the life of the elderly, but also promotes the industrialization and large-scale development of various pension services.

Japan first introduced the "elderly welfare law", and then the country's elderly social welfare system gradually built up. It can be summarized from the transformation of coverage, supply mode and project setting.

Health care, prevention and welfare services for the elderly in Japan are provided by professional organizations. The specific form is to obtain professional qualifications in accordance with the industry standards of nursing staff to agree on a specific place or to take the form of on-site service for the elderly life care skills to teach and help.

Rehabilitation nursing consists of facility nursing, home nursing, district nursing and welfare equipment rental and sale welfare service.

The state mainly promotes employment. The government is working mostly with local businesses to allow people aged 60 to 65, who would otherwise have reached retirement age, to continue working through systems such as modest retirement delays. Other senior citizens who wish to work may be assigned suitable jobs through the senior talent centre.

Japan's social welfare system is composed of multiple responsibility subjects. In this system, the state is responsible for the main welfare expenditure, and the state also undertakes the overall planning and implementation of social welfare. Local governments, as the second largest part of the social welfare system, are responsible for 50% of the national welfare expenditure. At the same time, welfare activities can be carried out according to local conditions in combination with local financial conditions. As the third responsible body, civil society welfare organizations are responsible for the operation of social welfare. In Japan, the vast majority of welfare facilities are run by civil society welfare corporations. Japan's civil welfare facilities include the type of civil organizations assisted by the government and the type of commercial welfare services provided to the elderly with certain economic strength. The elderly can choose a life suitable for them according to their economic status and life pursuit. Citizen groups are also a force that cannot be ignored in the social welfare network. The Japanese government is aware of the importance of this group, and has been vigorously advocating citizen participation in social welfare mechanism in recent years.

In order to allow the elderly to enjoy better social welfare treatment, Japan focuses on service, including professional service team and diversified service mode.

One is to have professional qualification certificate for specialization. According to the special law of social welfare in Japan, personnel engaged in social welfare work should obtain professional certificates. Second, schools are required to train professional talents. Some schools choose to offer social welfare services to provide professional talents for the society. The third is to hold regular vocational training for the staff who work in the social welfare undertakings, constantly improve their business and expand their knowledge.

Different elderly people have different welfare needs. The Japanese government not only CARES about the common characteristics of the elderly group, but also takes into account the different personality characteristics, so it studies a variety of social welfare services for the elderly. At present, Japan's elderly welfare facilities are composed of health care, rehabilitation, social participation and other forms, and the service mode is also diverse. According to the time of care, it can be divided into day care, short care, long care and other forms.

The role of civil society in public welfare should be further enhanced. Eighty percent of Japan's welfare facilities are operated and constructed by civil society welfare organizations entrusted by the state. Eighty percent of the construction cost of its welfare facilities shall be borne by the state and the government, and the rest shall be borne by the entrusted operators. It is found that many public welfare undertakings in Japan are run by multiple entities. Our country also can combine specific circumstance, raise the enthusiasm of social group in this respect.

Before, "family care" was the main way for the elderly to spend their lives in our country. However, with the growth of the number of elderly population, the increasing number of professional women, and the impact of the specific family planning policy in China, the current use of family care is probably too limited, and the future family care model is likely to cease to exist. Therefore, it is feasible to establish the nursing system based on Japanese experience. At the same time, the current endowment insurance and medical insurance systems in China are constantly supplemented and optimized. In order to avoid difficulties in the payment of fees in the process of reference, we can adopt progressive retirement policy of postponement, flexible retirement policy and extension of payment period. At the same time, we should plan ahead and actively advocate the way of keeping healthy.

At present, all kinds of pension forms exist side by side. To develop and expand in the long run, we must rely on professional services. With the development of The Times, the needs of the elderly are becoming more and more diversified. Therefore, it is of vital importance to cultivate professional talents for the welfare of the elderly and build professional service teams. The management of the team shall be strict, and professional qualification certificates shall be obtained before entry, regular training shall be conducted after entry, assessment shall be conducted according to specific standards, and organization supervision shall be accepted.

With the deepening of the aging degree, the elderly industry will have a good development prospect. The development of the elderly industry in Japan has generated considerable income. The country's elderly industry is divided into high and low grades according to their economic ability and consumer demand. For example, some elderly people with strong economic strength may choose high-end apartments. Upscale apartments for the elderly are provided with convenient medical facilities, close to public hospitals or with medical teams, convenient for the elderly to seek medical treatment, and recreational facilities. At the same time there are more complete facilities for the elderly working elderly rental apartments. According to the survey, the elderly who are really poor will be given water and electricity concessions. In general, we should develop a diversified and large-scale elderly industry.

With the improvement of living standards, many old people still have the energy to engage in many social activities, or continue scientific research activities and participate in elderly volunteer activities after reaching retirement age. For example, in terms of self-management of the elderly, we can learn from the practice of "senior citizens' club" in Japan and set up voluntary mass organizations for the elderly in the streets or communities, so as to make the elderly truly become the backbone of the community. This way can not only bring out the best in the elderly, but also enrich their life. So the state should actively advocate the elderly play surplus heat, to take a certain amount of financial support.

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