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India's anti-poverty policy

2019-08-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- India's anti-poverty policy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了印度反贫困政策。近几年,为了解决国内日益严峻的贫困与就业问题,积极发展农业生产,印度政府进行了一系列的改革,颁布并实施了一系列的扶贫开发战略规划。印度政府认为贫困是因为经济发展落后、资金投入不足,为此主要采取的是增加投资,以实现经济快速增长来解决国内贫困问题的战略举措。

India, the largest country in the south Asian subcontinent with a land area of 2.98 million square kilometers, has a population of 1.339 billion as of 2017, which is the second most populous country in the world after China. India's economy is dominated by cultivation, modern agriculture, handicraft industry, modern industry and its supporting industries. It is one of the fastest growing countries in the world, with an annual economic growth rate of 5.8%, and even reached 6.1% in 2011-2012, becoming the third largest economy in the world after the United States, China and Japan. However, India is also a developing country with extremely unbalanced distribution of social wealth, with caste system, poverty and employment problems particularly acute. A quarter of the population is still hungry. Two-thirds of India's population still depends directly or indirectly on agriculture. In order to solve the increasingly severe poverty and employment problems in the country and actively develop agricultural production, the Indian government has carried out a series of reforms and promulgated and implemented a series of poverty alleviation and development strategic plans.

The Indian government believes that poverty is caused by backward economic development and insufficient capital investment. Therefore, it mainly adopts the strategic measures of increasing investment to achieve rapid economic growth to solve the domestic poverty problem. It mainly carries out two major reform measures: the first is the "green revolution". In order to fundamentally solve the problem of India's domestic food production, the supply of grain of independence, the Indian government launched a "green revolution" in the mid - 1960 - s, before and after total lasted 20 years, through the introduction of high-yield crop of new products, promote agricultural new technology, increase food production, to achieve the revitalization of agriculture development of science and technology. At the same time, the Indian government also launched the "white revolution" and "blue revolution", which led to the rapid development of India's livestock industry, and once became the world's largest milk producer, and the export of fish and aquatic products became another source of income for the Indian people. The second is the agrarian revolution. In 1949, in order to develop agriculture and increase food production, the Indian government carried out the land reform centered on abolishing the landowner of "chai mindal" : abolishing the land ownership of the middleman -- chai mindal; Reforming the system of land tenancy; To set a ceiling on land holdings. However, due to the caste system and other factors, India's land reform is not thorough. The number of landless and landless farmers is still huge, accounting for 3/4 of the rural population.

Indirect stage for poverty alleviation, the "green revolution", "white revolution", "blue revolution" although in the agricultural development has made remarkable achievements, but because of the good to grasp the "degree" and the defects of institutions and mechanisms related to it makes it serious departure from the reform of the initial good intentions, poverty alleviation effect is very limited, plus land reform is not complete, the large number of landless peasants only faced with two choices: one is to "labor contract", the second is flowing into the cities looking for work. No matter which way they choose, their impoverished life is not improved very much. In general. The "green revolution" and the land reform have left behind many social problems, and poverty and unemployment have become increasingly severe. Indirect poverty reduction stage, although the implementation of the national economy increased dramatically, food basically achieved self-sufficiency, even there will be a small amount of exports, but the poverty rate is still high, therefore the government of India from the beginning of the "double fifth plan", adjusting for poverty alleviation and development strategic planning, directly for the poor and unemployed workers in direct support poverty alleviation and development strategy, mainly include: overall rural development plans. The program, which was officially launched in 1979, mainly targets the poor with an annual income of less than 3,500 rupees. Second, government subsidies of 25-50% of the total amount of poverty alleviation should be given according to the social and occupational conditions of the beneficiaries. It should be noted that the subsidies are not directly given in cash, but are assets equal to the subsidies. During the seventh five-year plan period, 18.177 million poor rural households will be helped. Self-employment training program for rural youth: this program is a sub-program of the comprehensive rural development program. The main purpose of this program is to realize self-employment of rural youth by providing free training in new technologies and updating traditional technologies to young people from poor rural families. In 1987, rural youth with paid employment were also included in the program's training team. During the seventh five-year plan period, the plan provided training to one million rural youth, 47 percent of whom were self-employed. Rural women and children development program. The scheme, which was piloted in 50 counties in 1982, provided women's groups with a one-off working capital of rs 15,000 to run the income-generating activities they chose. During the seventh five-year plan period, the program benefited 460,000 women. The national rural employment plan: it was renamed from the work-for-relief program, mainly to provide employment opportunities for the poor by building rural infrastructure and rural dormitories and housing, and then the government paid the poor families with preferential food prices. Funding for these basic rural welfare projects is split between the central and state governments. During the seventh five-year plan period, the government invested 29.4 billion rupees to achieve 1.48 billion days of employment. Employment security scheme for rural landless farmers: poverty alleviation is limited to landless farmers, with the aim of providing employment security for at least one member of a landless farmer's family for 100 days a year. The program is funded entirely by the central government. A total of rs 24.12 billion was invested during the seventh five-year plan period, providing employment opportunities for 1.15 billion people per day. JRY job creation plan: create more jobs mainly through rural infrastructure projects or other projects that can benefit poor farmers in the long run, and the funding for these projects will be Shared by the central government and the state government in a ratio of 8 to 2. In addition to the above strategy plan, the government of India has successively promulgated and implemented a program such as millions of well, regional development plan, r&d plan of rural water supply project, desert, mountain development plan, the surplus land allocation plan, arid region agricultural development plan and a series of associated with rural poverty alleviation plan, compared with the indirect stage for poverty alleviation, really received the good effect of poverty alleviation.

As second only to China's second largest populous country, India make positive efforts to eliminate domestic poverty, have introduced a diversified strategy of poverty alleviation and development plan, has achieved certain results, poverty population overall downward trend, but it has remained at around 20%, the proportion of poor people in 2011 to 270 million, even the gini coefficient is rising year by year, serious unfairness of income distribution, gap between the rich and the poor are becoming ever more obvious, overall poverty reduction effect is not ideal in India. Therefore, it is of great guiding significance to summarize the experience and lessons of India's anti-poverty practice and explore the advantages and disadvantages of its diversified anti-poverty policies and measures. Looking at India's anti-poverty policy initiatives, we can draw some lessons:

Reform of agricultural systems and mechanisms must be thorough. In 1949, India in order to develop agriculture, increase food production to abolish the "Chai Mingda" landlord as the center of a variety of factors such as land reform due to the caste system but not completely, landless farmers and less quantity size is still huge, which left a lot of social problems, indirect exacerbated the poor in India since then.

The income distribution system must be improved. India in the anti-poverty practice, the income distribution system because of the existence of the caste system is extremely unfair, it makes the gap between rich and poor is big, wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few rich people, the enlightenment of our country in precise anti-poverty practice must pay attention to the income distribution system and the synchronization of optimization, in order to avoid a gradual widening gap between rich and poor, poverty of social problems.

We will increase the participation of poverty alleviation targets in development and poverty alleviation projects. India direct poverty alleviation phase is highlighted by a variety of programs and support to provide employment opportunities for the poor, poverty alleviation and object of independent creativity and self development ability construction pay attention to and use of, not the accuracy of the enlightenment in the future in our country poverty alleviation and practice to pay attention to the cultivation objects of self-development ability, fully mobilize and use of its own creativity, to improve the poor poverty alleviation project participation.

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