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Capitalist culture

2019-08-06 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Capitalist culture,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了资本主义文化。西方马克思主义对资本主义的批判由点到面,集中在经济、政治和文化等各个子系统,最后发展为全面批判。其中,对资本主义的文化批判理论揭示了工业社会下的文化异化与文化危机,抨击了资本主义制度下文化发展的错误方面,从而有利于文化的良性发展,由此促进了现代艺术的繁荣和人民大众口味的整体提高。

Capitalist culture,资本主义文化,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

At the end of the 20th century, western marxists held different attitudes towards the role of culture. Some people think it is negative and negative. At present, the correct analysis of the role, not only can realize the problems of capitalist culture, but also for the current China's cultural undertakings and cultural industries, vulgarization and commercialization of entertainment and a deceptive error, thus to promote the cultural prosperity and development of our country, a firm cultural self-confidence, promote the development of socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.

Western marxism criticizes capitalism from point to point, first focusing on the economic, political and cultural subsystems, and finally developing into a comprehensive critique. Among them, the cultural criticism theory of capitalism reveals the cultural alienation and cultural crisis in the industrial society, and criticizes the wrong aspects of cultural development in the capitalist system, which is conducive to the benign development of culture, thus promoting the prosperity of modern art and the overall improvement of people's taste. The cultural critical theory of western marxism is the critical reflection of the cultural alienation and cultural crisis of the developed industrial society in the 20th century by the founders of western marxism such as Frankfurt school theorists lukacs, kirsch, gramsci, hockheimer and marcuse, adorno and habermas. Cultural criticism is an important content of western marxism, but before the 1990s, its researchers were mainly confined to the Frankfurt school. At the end of the 20th century, cultural criticism began to receive extensive attention from different schools of western marxism.

In the view of western marxism, art and culture play an increasingly important role in contemporary capitalist society. However, different western marxists have different views on this role. Some western marxists believe that the culture of capitalism is negative and negative, such as hockheimer and adorno. Some western marxists fully affirm the positive role and liberating function of mass culture in capitalism, such as Benjamin. They have different attitudes in cultural reproduction, cultural industry and mass culture.

Hawk hammer and adorno agreed that capitalist culture, there are many problems and disadvantages of his effect is negative, negative, "economic productivity, on the one hand, lay a foundation for the world a more just, on the other hand and let the machines and grasp social group has absolute power over the rest of the population." Hockheimer and adorno believe that with the continuous improvement of machine production and productivity, people have more and more power to control their production, and in this case, people's ideological understanding and cultural level has been developed rapidly. They believe in the "dialectics of enlightenment", since the enlightenment, the spread of culture seems to mean that the public generally quality enhancement, but the capitalism culture industry has been under the condition of capital control, all aspects of the capitalist society are filtered by the cultural industry, cultural industry has become the development of the capitalist society to maintain own existence "social cement", this means that the cultural industry imprison and people's thought and life, to the masses is full of deception.

The gradual formation of cultural industry not only means cultural deception, but also the commercialization of cultural products. Adorno once pointed out in his theory of aesthetics that mass culture itself is very deceptive. To some extent, cultural form is to serve the public, but the essence of culture evolves into a form of cultural consumption after gradually commercialization. This means that this mode of cultural consumption causes cultural products and authors to lose the original intention and purpose of creation and makes cultural works and consumers lose their original characteristics. After all, the creation of cultural products at the beginning is not to meet the actual needs of individuals, sometimes it is just the crystallization of the budding genius, pursuing only a kind of intuitive recreation and entertainment.

In addition, from the perspective of cultural products themselves, the commercialization of culture means the maximization of interest pursuit. In order to maximize profits, monks are required to combine cultural production with modern science and technology, and modern industrial technology becomes the basis of artistic works. This, to some extent, results in the invasion of utilitarian colors in the art field, and cultural products are gradually characterized by pattern and standardization. In this regard, adorno advocates the liberation of culture and art. He advocates to restore the "non-identity" of literary and artistic works, and to make the social system more philosophical and speculative by adding philosophical colors to literature and art, so as to realize the release of culture and art.

Hockheimer and adorno strongly criticized the mass culture of capitalism, but Benjamin, also a Frankfurt school, believed that the role of mass culture was positive and liberating, and that mass culture could promote the criticism of capitalism. Benjamin's thought is obviously different from the critical theory of Frankfurt school, which shows his optimistic attitude to its existence in science and technology. In the criticism of capitalism, Benjamin can be said to be the earliest practitioner of the critical thinking of western marxism "consumer society". "The entertainment industry makes it easier for them to get that satisfaction by raising them to a commercial level," he says. They are at the mercy of the entertainment industry while they enjoy alienation of themselves and alienation of others."

Benjamin's criticism of capitalist culture is not out of thin air, but has a complicated theoretical background. In the final analysis, it is right and fundamentally revealing the unique contradictory experience of modern society. The revelation of this kind of experience, on the one hand, shows the trend of public consciousness and ideological liberation, on the other hand, the development of technology has produced a tendency to obliterate human personality. Around this issue, Benjamin put forward a sociological theory of art supported by the marxist position, which is mainly reflected in his work "works of art in the age of mechanical reproduction". In this work, Benjamin believes that the economic characteristics of culture and art in capitalist society are comprehensive mechanical reproduction, which enables artistic works to transcend the relationship between traditional culture and art and political life, promote art to the public, and become the monopoly of a few artistic elites. To some extent, this change promotes the prosperity of modern art and the overall improvement of people's taste.

To build a strong modern country, we need not only economic, institutional, scientific, technological and educational forces, but also advanced and powerful cultural forces and the support of modern civilization. In western marxist theorists view, complete alienation in contemporary capitalism daily life situations, the real marxism is not only adhere to the proletariat to overthrow capitalist revolution of grand narrative, the most critical fundamental task is through the criticism of complete alienation phenomenon of daily life, in the field of daily life to launch a microscopic cultural revolution, to discard the complete alienation of everyday life, realize man's complete liberation. With the development of information technology, network and globalization, the contact between countries in the world has become increasingly close. For the development of China, it is not only influenced by traditional Chinese culture, but also all kinds of cultures in the world have exerted influences on China. Therefore, the study of the western marxist critical theory of culture, can re-understand the level and attitude involved in the western marxist criticism of capitalism culture, and has certain theoretical and practical significance for the construction of socialist culture with Chinese characteristics under the guidance of marxism. Any history is contemporary history, and the history of any concept depends on the historical development of certain realistic social existence. History is a mirror, looking back on history is to better look at the present.

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