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The influence of the church of England on the rise of cities

2019-08-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The influence of the church of England on the rise of cities,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国教会对城市兴起的影响。英国城市的蓬勃兴起,教会起着积极作用。基督教教义主张平等自由,提倡诚实守信、遵守规则、遵从内心的选择,这为城市兴起奠定了思想基础;教会作为宗教中心,引领消费集中,促使工商业汇集,为城市发展奠定了物质基础。另外教会还插手经济,提出促进经济发展的手段和策略,推动了英国城市的兴起。早期教会具有城市性,教会与城市联系密切;有的宗教中心直接发展为城市,教士的文化教育活动推动英国城市的阶层流动,从而带动了英国城市的兴起。

In the 12th and 13th centuries English cities flourished and the church played an active role. The Christian doctrine advocated equality and freedom, and advocated honesty and honesty, abiding by rules and following inner choices, which laid the ideological foundation for the rise of cities. As a religious center, the church leads the consumption concentration, promotes the industry and commerce to gather, and lays the material foundation for the urban development. The church also got involved in the economy, proposing the means and strategies to promote economic development, and driving the rise of British cities. The early church has the city nature, the church and the city close connection; some religious centers develop directly into cities, and the cultural education activity of priests promotes the class flow of British cities, thus driving the rise of British cities.

With the fall and collapse of the Roman empire, the development of British cities was interrupted. In the early days of Anglo-Saxon, most cities were already dead, and real cities were dead. This period experienced the conflict of tribal states, the invasion of foreign tribes and the war of secession, followed by the urban demise, which was called the dark and backward era by historians. In the 12th century, British cities sprang up everywhere. What prompted the rise of British cities in the 12th and 13th centuries? As we go back to the cities of late Anglo-Saxon England, the church was beginning to take shape, it was becoming organized, and it became a powerful social force in England. The domestic research on the medieval church of England is weak, especially the research on the influence of the church on the rise of cities in the 12th and 3rd centuries. This paper explores the positive influence of church on the rise of medieval British cities, which is undoubtedly of academic significance.

The doctrine is the most core part of religion. The well-known image of conservative and greed in the medieval Christian church is deeply rooted in people's hearts. After colluding with the king, the church oppresses the poor people, such as teaching people to meek, learn to endure and obey orders. However, the positive side of the doctrine is worth advocating.

Christianity emphasizes the concept of equality of all people, natural law and fraternity. The concept of equality and autonomy inherited from ancient primitive society, classical society and even Christianity in the middle ages laid the ideological foundation for the birth of medieval cities in Western Europe. In primitive times, people had simple ideas about the equality between tribal members. Economically, cities represent commerce; Politically, the city was an autonomous community, anti-feudal. Citizens demand equality, and then the judicial power, the power of autonomy. The doctrine of equality before god, which is universal and covers all, provides a theoretical basis for the equality needed for the development of industry and commerce.

Christian doctrine advocates freedom. "The medieval city originated from the classical era and the combination of justice and Christianity and the integration of rationalism. In the western medieval era where the belief in supremacy not only existed, but also existed from weakness to strength. Eventually, universal rationality was established and prevailed in the heyday of the middle ages." At the same time, a sense of self-determination to pursue the individual is also emerging. British cities were anti-feudal, and with the strength of capitalism, a third tier grew out of the cities and seized power as a representative of the whole population. In the 12th and 13th centuries, British cities developed on the basis of this trend of pursuing freedom and breaking away from the feudal bondage. This concept of freedom became an important ideological condition for the rise of cities.

Many scholars argue that Christianity before the reformation was opposed to profit motive and even that the church was hostile to business. French historian Henry skin reina has summarize characteristics of the late middle ages in this sentence: "traders rarely make god happy, even can never make god pleasure". This seems to me to be a clear bias against the church, because under god, the merchants did make money, there were many successful cases, and they were the driving force of urban development. The church implicitly promoted the emancipation of the business mind, "human beings are no longer dependent on the bounty of nature, but are starting from scratch to try to construct a new and manageable order."

Christianity began to spread in England in 597 when augustine was sent by the Pope to preach in what was then the kingdom of Kent. By the eighth century, England had 17 bishops, four in the north and 13 in the south. These places are not only religious centers, but also a collection of handicraft products. Some scholars believe that since at least the 8th century, these cathedrals and monasteries have been distinguished from surrounding villages and have the characteristics of "city". How does the church promote economic growth, and thus the rise of cities? The author analyzes from subjective and objective aspects.

Objectively, the great religious center is a considerable consumer community. Religious people make up the majority of consumers in British cities represented by London, and purchases account for the absolute amount of business. Church people not only need all kinds of daily necessities, wine, used to decorate the church exquisite handicrafts and other luxury goods, also need to temporary factotum servants, these requirements constitute a large and attractive market, landless peasants, slaves, and craftsmen and businessmen, servants, and the beggar flocked to look for opportunities. In addition to the church's own demand, increasing of pilgrims gathered city also, for those relics along a place of pilgrimage route and with saint church or monasteries prosperity of commodity economy, Susan Reynolds called "pilgrim trade". The market developed and the economy boomed. Excavations of the monasteries of the eighth and ninth centuries, such as hartlepool and whitby, revealed the existence of handicraftsmen in a variety of industries, where foreign trade and local trade were active. These excavations show the importance of religious institutions for early urban development.

Subjectively, the church collects various benefits such as tolls from the market. In the eighth century, for example, because the property of bishop Worcester and his cathedral was a salt producing center, the church's two boats ply the salt trade between London and Worcester, and were exempt from passing taxes along the way. In the second half of the ninth century, etelfrid and her husband Ethel authorized Worcester bishop wofetz and his church to receive half of the proceeds of the market. Such wealth encouraged local artisans and merchants, and there were countless businesses in the name of the church. A typical example is that the abbot of st albans established a market there in 968. Apart from providing construction materials to the businessmen who had come to live in the area, he made other attractive terms for them to conduct business. His descendants followed his example and continued to develop local industry and commerce. The abbot, Leopold, even improved the roads to London, building Bridges and cutting down bushes that impeded traffic.

At the beginning of its emergence, the church has the character of city, which is the foundation of the church's existence and an important place for its dissemination. "Early Christianity was an urban religion, it was urban, not rural, and its spread between the city and the province was along the waterway," says historian Thomas Thompson in his medieval history of economic society. Urban in the church have embodied in the "new testament", from the era of Jesus and the le loi province countryside farmer's religious city of Paul's world religions, Christianity produced change, compared to Jesus quoted familiar things in life such as crops, and the birds of the air as a metaphor, Paul cited many times in the metaphor of the original city and market.

As the core of the church, the clergy plays an important role in urban development. Professor li zenghong pointed out in his analysis of the social classes of London in the 13th and 15th centuries that: "the priest is a very important social class in the medieval British society, as well as an important class in the medieval London society. The clergy gradually established an independent administrative system, constantly improved the Christian theology, and systematically and orderly instilled the Christian theology and doctrines into all social strata. Catholic priests were the only social class to have received education, and they played an important role in England's cultural communication and national administration. As a way to acquire knowledge, the priest plays an important role in the cultural construction of the city. Since education could cultivate people's ability, in the early middle ages, education was monopolized by the church, and the important positions were those of Catholic priests and archbishops. People who had the need for education became dependent on the church, which triggered the urban class flow, and class flow gave rise to new cities. Furthermore, as more people flooded into the city, stimulated by education, the size and number of cities grew accordingly.

The church city is the typical representative of the medieval British cities, and takes the lead in the development of other cities. In addition to handicraftsmen and small merchants, the city also has bishops, priests, monks and other ecclesiastical figures, and some officials and officials in the city are also mostly priests. In addition, if the city is a college town, there will be many church students. "There are a number of English cities, first cathedrals or monasteries, and then a great number of business people, which gradually grow into cities. By the 9th century, as an important religious center, the city of Canterbury had a habit of requiring the eaves of houses to be two feet wide. Because of his political importance, Canterbury became one of the earliest coin minting points in the country. It was on the main road from London to the coast, which was mentioned as a market in the 8th century, and portus in the 9th century, so you can see its commercial status. Church cities had a certain size in the Anglo-Saxon period and were protected by the crown, and by the 12th and 13th centuries, with the growth of church power, church cities led to the rise of English cities.

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, British cities developed under the combined role of the crown, economic development and church. The church's role as an initiator, communicator and participant is not the image of greed, corruption and conservatism that people assume. The doctrine has an imperceptible positive impact on the germination of urban industry and commerce, and the church's own economic development has led to the development of British cities. As a religious center, the cultural activities of the church city played a radiating role. It can be said that the early church played an important role in promoting the rise and development of British cities in the 12th and 13th centuries.

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