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The human enhancement

2019-07-30 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The human enhancement,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了人类增强。人类增强,指的是借助科学技术强化人类某一方面能力以超出现有常规水平的持续性发展过程,最终目的是达到一种终极人类解放的平衡状态。生物进步主义者和生物保守主义者可以在这样一个终极目标引导下进行合作,在审慎反思人类增强正负两方面问题基础上不断前进。

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In recent years, the trend of thought of applying new technology to transform human beings has been rising. The participation of some technology leaders has gradually expanded their social influence, and a series of serious discussions on different issues have gradually emerged in the academic circle. These discussions use different terms due to their different emphasis, but they are all closely related to the application of new technologies to personal enhancement, so we use the concept of human enhancement to represent such a kind of biological progressivism. This trend of thought of biological progressivism is a relatively cutting-edge emerging research field at home and abroad. Various viewpoints and theories have scattered and emerged without forming a mature research paradigm, which has caused difficulties in our understanding and understanding, let alone further in-depth research and development.

Because of this, this article first to enhance human beings as the representative of such a biological progressive trend of different dispute genre to comb, and then from the "treatment", "enhanced", "perfect" series of conception Angle is pointed out that the essence of human enhancement is human liberation, the last is the basic research framework of this kind of human liberation was discussed.

The concept of human enhancement has a long history. Scholars usually trace it back to the story of the pursuit of immortality in the epic of gilgamesh and the Greek mythology of Daedalus, etc. However, according to luc fahy, the emergence of the trend of human enhancement in the modern sense can be traced back to the following sources: "Some form of classical humanism, DORA from milan to the condorcet, Kant, Rousseau, Francis Bacon, Ferguson and La Mettrie, they are sure the infinite perfection of human, don't think people from the beginning was fixed in a decisive nature, do not touch, do not like animals is a common natural instinct to guide; Trananthropocentrism also inherits the optimism of scientists and technophiles from the enlightenment and scientific revolution to the modern age of NBIC, robotics and artificial intelligence; Of course, it also inherits traditional science fiction, but it only turns traditional science fiction into science, not fiction. It is also related to the counterculture trend of the 1960s, including feminism, eco-protectionism, egalitarianism, absolute liberalism... "And so on, this is basically consistent with the views of the founder of transhumanism bosterm.

The formal emergence of the concept of human augmentation is generally considered the creation of Julian Huxley, a 20th-century biologist and eugenicist who, in a series of lectures and articles in the 1950s, presented a utopian vision of a transhumanistic future. After the 1960s, various human-enhanced schools of thought began to formally emerge, which laid the foundation for the current development pattern. These different schools of thought were mainly: in 1988, Max Moore and Tom morrow first published the anti-entropy journal, and in 1992, they established the anti-entropy institute, which had a great influence. Marx and Moore gave the first definition of supranationalism in the modern sense, emphasizing some principles such as infinite expansion, self-transformation and dynamic selection. He advocated a kind of decentralization of power and responsibility and opposed autocratic government. Nick bostrom and David pearce founded the world superman society, now known as HumanityPlus, in 1998 and began publishing evolution and technology journals in 1999. Nick bostrom and Max Moore wrote the manifesto of transhumanism, arguing that rather than banning technology from transforming humans, it would be better to prepare for the inevitable evolution of humanity by avoiding the problems that might arise. Another important reference is the "frequently asked questions on transoceanic questions". In 2006, ray kurzweil's "the singularity is near" argued that the accumulation of technology, represented by artificial intelligence, would bring humans and human societies to a tipping point, or "singularity," where big, unpredictable changes are about to occur. Google in 2008 and combined with the U.S. space agency NASA launched the singularity university, ray kurzweil, presidents, school motto is preparing humanity for accelerating technology change to enhance human concept of biological progressive reflection or criticism, mainly of fushan, habermas, Michael sandel, biological conservatism. Fukuyama expresses his concerns in terms of religion, utility and, above all, humanity. Sandel's "against perfection" distinguishes between healing and reinforcement, highlighting the dangers of transhumanism from the gratitude of natural gifts to the arrogance of intense control, a similar concern expressed by habermas in his future of human nature. In fact, the latter two concerns about eugenics are better answered in Alan buchanan's famous book from luck to choice.

From the above simple sorting of the concept of human enhancement, we can see that: the concept propositions of biological progressivism, such as anti-entropy, transubstantialism and singularity, are more about putting forward and advocating a new concept, with high enthusiasm but inevitably extreme; The distinction between the treatment and enhancement of biological conservatism, as well as its eugenics and human doubts, is more a criticism of the arguments of biological progressivism, which has certain depth but is too rigid and conservative. They are all based on the concept of human enhancement, but their terms and emphasis are different, and their comprehensiveness and depth are also slightly insufficient, requiring further systematic and in-depth study.

Through the previous discussion, we can see that human enhancement is more of a comparative concept, there are three levels of unenhanced, enhanced and ultimate enhancement, which correspond to the three levels of treatment, enhancement and perfection that have appeared in the previous discussion. These three levels of concepts can well integrate all schools of human enhancement, and at the same time imply the fundamental nature of human enhancement. Therefore, we will proceed from these three levels of concepts for further discrimination and analysis.

As for treatment, this is a concept corresponding to disease. Currently, it is generally believed that the human body has a range of so-called normal physiological indicators, and deviating from the range means disease. This is the mainstream understanding of disease in the biomedical model, and also the general consensus of the vast majority of people at present. According to this disease concept, human physiology has a normal or standard model and prototype, and anything beyond the scope is regarded as different and needs to be restored by medical means. Based on this idea, the customary norm system of desire, emotion, thought and other normal manifestations of human psychology is further formed. All abnormal psychological states need to be restrained or treated by medical or social means. Further, because there is a typical human physiological psychology and we want to be there at all costs to the standard model in conformity with this model, so everyone should be the same, in theory, standardized, between people should be equal, under this concept formed our whole system of legal, political, cultural and other specifications. This concept of typical human beings and the entire cultural system construction based on typical human beings is regarded as natural, legitimate and eternal, and any change to it is wrong and will lead to devastating consequences. This concept can be said to be the core theoretical assertion of biological conservatism. But as the medical model from the biomedical mode to the transition of the biological - psychology - social medical model, people gradually began to understand the so-called disease is not fixed, but will be strongly influenced by social and cultural factors, such as gay once considered abnormal now only be seen as human choose different hobbies. Especially in recent years, research on medical phenomenon, but also further the disease from the original defects such as the concept of anencephaly, extended to anomalies such as premature ejaculation, and further don't like such as halitosis, making the prototype has changed greatly, which further leads to a series of about the change of the system of human nature and social habit. About enhancement, we said that the change of medical mode and the spread of medical phenomenon make the original human prototype image loose, and the change of human body and then human nature and social norms with the help of science and technology is the extremely radical form of this trend, so the corresponding controversy is also very big. Comb through the controversy of different strength form the comparison, we can more clear understanding to the essence of human enhancement, specifically: biological conservatives think humans increase beyond the natural order and social traditions, therefore should not be, such as the biological basis of fushan think people decided the human nature, human rights and dignity of people and even social culture, the change of the biological basis of human will inevitably affect this a series of objects, and make a huge impact. Moderate centrist think treatment and enhance the boundary is fuzzy, so it's hard to say whether this change is good or bad, such as Hansson thought that disease is not a clearly defined on the biological concept, but a depends largely on the concept of social values, so it is difficult to from this Angle to discuss the pros and cons of enhancement. Optimistic biological progressives thought inner pursuit of perfecting human enhancement reflected the human nature, so it is good, should be, such as Nick Bosch trent is considered from the Renaissance milan DORA to condorcet, Kant's a classical humanism tradition itself contains infinite perfect pursuit of mankind. Comb through the above human enhancement different strong and weak forms of comparison, we find that the core of their dispute is still surrounding the definition of human itself, if human itself is fixed, so we should support biological conservative opinions, and if the human race itself definition can be development and changes, so we should support the biological progressive point of view, and so people have been focused on the enhancement of the concept of the core of humanity itself definition, is the pursuit of the same or the pursuit of perfect.

As for perfection, it is actually a problem of human value selection. For the human life system, the pursuit of invariance is a kind of adaptive self-stable survival maintenance, while the pursuit of perfection is a kind of improvement of adaptive evolution. One is the premise and the other is the purpose, both of which have indispensable values. According to oneself, to be published a series of articles on the system theory of argument for the life a person's system or further for any system, there is a tendency in the trend of balance, the balance is only in the "minimum particle", "isolated static system" and the "largest system" to achieve the three conditions. "Static isolated system" refers to the internal static and external isolation so that it can remain unchanged, and "maximum system" refers to the large universe system with zero internal net force and no external force, the former corresponds to the pursuit of invariance defined by human beings and the latter corresponds to the pursuit of perfection. "Still isolated system" adaptability since stability is easy to break, after imbalances will inevitably with the aid of the external and internal adjustment of input and output, bifurcate mutation forms after the new stable state, this process is repeated until the formation of the universe in general state of "biggest system" to achieve real balance, eternal meaning of the definition of humanity itself to pursue the same just the life system of temporary strategy, but only the pursuit of perfect is its true nature. This perfect pursuit of eternal balance is obviously consistent with the view of human nature of biological progressivism. Therefore, we build biological progressivism on the philosophical depth foundation of system axiology, thus making it more solid and convincing. Therefore, the essence of human enhancement is actually the pursuit of human perfection. Enhancement is not equal to happiness and not equal to perfection. We only realize the pursuit of human perfection by means of such a tool as enhancement. Because this pursuit of perfection is similar to the marxist concept of free and comprehensive development of human beings, we may call it human liberation, that is to say, the essence of human enhancement is actually human liberation.

To sum up, human enhancement actually refers to the continuous development process of strengthening human ability in a certain aspect beyond the existing conventional level with the help of science and technology, and the ultimate goal is to achieve a happy, free and balanced state of ultimate human liberation. Biological progressives and biological conservatives can actually work together under the guidance of such an ultimate goal, and proceed on the basis of careful reflection on the positive and negative aspects of human enhancement.

Enhancement of human being, or the development of human liberation is still in its infancy, the future development of the first thing you need to solve a problem, why is why to enhance or human liberation, thus able to arouse the enthusiasm of people, and really the problem you can try from the inside of science and technology and social development of the human nature to pursue and the external drive two aspects were analyzed. After this problem is solved, we need to further solve the problem of how to enhance or liberate human beings. It is a comprehensive problem involving natural sciences, social sciences and humanities, and requires the cooperation and efforts of all sectors of society to make certain progress. Human liberation can be said to be a long-term arduous project, but also an inevitable trend of social development, I believe that with the continuous efforts of all sectors of society, we will be able to make progress in many aspects, so as to realize the infinite possibilities of mankind.


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