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The air pollution problem

2019-01-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The air pollution problem,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了空气污染问题。空气是大气的重要物质,也是人类生存最基本的自然资源。随着城市化进程的加快,空气问题一直困扰着人类。空气污染对生态环境和人类健康都有直接的影响。但空气污染是不可避免的,工业化必然会带来空气污染,因此需要政府、企业、社会和个人共同努力,减少空气污染。

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1. Introduction

Air is an important material of the atmosphere, and it is also the most basic natural resource for human survival. As the process of urbanization is accelerating, the air problem has been plaguing human beings. Air pollution has a direct impact on the ecological environment and human health. There are many tragedies caused by air pollution. But the air pollution is inevitable, industrialization is bound to bring air pollution, so it requires the government, enterprises, society and individuals together to reduce air pollution.

2. Impact on Society

2.1 Sources of air pollution

The main factor affecting the quality of air is the process of urbanization, and the sources of air pollution are more, but mainly concentrate in three directions:

The first is the industrialization. Industrial waste gas contains a large number of harmful fumes, sulfides, nitrides and carbides, these components make air quality decline through industrial emissions, also these substances are not easy to spread, and the main component stays in the form of gas for a long-term.

The second is the exhaust pollution from urban transport. With the improvement of people's lives, trains, aircrafts, ships, cars and other means of transport have become an indispensable part, transport vehicles need to burn coal, oil and other substances, then it will produce a lot of waste gas which air can’t break down quickly.

Third is the human life activities. For example, the process of cooking and heating will produce a lot of fuel through the combustion of flue gas, and then, when people burn garbage, it will produce a lot of gas which then enters the air and affects air quality. (ESchoolToday.com, 2008)

2.2 Impact of air pollution

(1)Impact to the ecological environment

Pollution has a certain damage to ozone layer. A large number of refrigerants and chlorofluorocarbon gas are produced during people’s life and industrial production which greatly destroy the ozone layer and weaken its ability to block ultraviolet radiation.

The carbon dioxide produced by coal combustion and gas emissions generated by car are filled with the Earth makes a greenhouse effect. The excessive greenhouse gas keeps the Earth's temperature rising, and “currently carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend” (Socha, 2007). The glaciers have begun to melt and are increasing at a certain rate each year which will result in a change in the ecological environment of the Earth.

There are a large number of sulfur dioxide, sulfide and other acid gases in air which can mix with the car exhaust emissions--nitrogen oxides in a short time, and then acid rain will come. Acid rain has a huge harm to plants and will lead to the reduction of agricultural production, the erosion of buildings, and the death of a large number of shrimp.

(2) Impact to human health

First of all, acid rain can make urban drinking water in chemical reaction, then cause a greater threat to human health. Second, human respiratory inhalation of air pollutants harms human body, such as upper and lower respiratory tract diseases. For example, “when exposed to ground ozone for 6 to 7 hours, scientific evidence show that healthy people’s lung function decreased and they suffered from respiratory inflammation” (Theworldcounts.com, 2014).

2.3 Lessons from China

China is in development now, they ignore to protect the environment while paying much attention to economic development, so they meet air pollution and other serious environmental pollution problems, especially now almost half of China is in the haze. Air pollutants include a wide variety of contaminants such as sulphates, ozone, soot particles, dust, sulfur dioxide, and so on, what’s more, the concentration of pollutants is quite high. The figure below shows the emissions of pollutants from 1999 to 2003 in China.

Now, Chinese “levels of the pollutant in the air are comparable to Japan in the 1970s when air pollution was a major problem there” (Jeffrey, 2008), and “Air pollution is killing about 4,000 people in China a day” (Theguardian.com, 2015). May be China has the world's largest number of deaths due to air pollution. Moreover, lung cancer is the main cause of death currently in China. According to "China Daily", the released data from Beijing Cancer Research Association show that in Beijing, lung cancer cases rose 56% from 2000 to 2009. So does respiratory diseases, 26% of people died because of respiratory diseases, but in the United States, the percent is only 2% -3%. Thus, now, for China, to control air pollution is a very urgent task.

Chart: The emissions of pollutantsin China

Source extracted from the website http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat10/sub66/item392.html on 4 May 2017

3. Ethical Dilemma

3.1 Kantian Theory

Kant believed that the right intention would result in right consequences (Taylor & Francis Group), which involves what “right” is. To develop industry is a “right intention” for a country. Industry is the main body of the city, it also is the premise of economic development, but industrial production will discharge a large number of exhaust gas which is bound to impact on air quality and the environment, what’s more, coal is the core fuel to support the industrial revolution and the rapid development of technology is inseparable from coal, but coal combustion will produce a lot of carbon dioxide, which have affected environment, and does not lead a “right consequences”. So some people say that economic development and environmental protection has reciprocal relationship. However, when a country develops to a certain extent, industrial development and environmental protection can be taken into account at the same time, which involves the green economy, and it is the direction all countries are going.

3.2 Utilitarianism

For utilitarianism, they only “looks at the purpose and end result of an action” (Velasquez, 2006). In the development of the economy, many countries, such as China, only focus on GDP, while ignoring the environmental factors. Utilitarianism is supportive of this approach, it is normal for them to sacrifice the environment in order to develop the economy and improve their competitiveness as a whole. Enterprises know increasing environmental investment is bound to lead to the reduction of their benefits and workers' income, so some of them choose to reduce investment in order not to affect their own income. In China, many private business owners do not obey the law, in order to profit more, secretly discharge the exhaust, waste water and other pollutant without pre-process, for them, economic benefit is greater than everything, they will not consider what kind of consequences it will bring to future generations or how long nature need to disperse the pollutants. On environmental protection issues, only considering one’s own benefit should be abandoned, people all live on the earth, and everyone should love it. But at this time there is a new problem, when food and clothing are problems for some people, they will pay more attention to the economy than environment, and when economic development reaches a certain extent, environmental problems have become more serious. Thus, almost all countries have not escaped the curse, "pollute at first and then governance".

4. Recommendations

4.1 Measures

“The best way to protect air quality is to reduce the emission of pollutants by changing to cleaner fuels and processes” (Jerry, 2017), so people should find a way to reduce emissions of pollutants. Cooperative governance is a good choice, which emphasizes the collaboration of government, social organizations, enterprises, the community and the individual, and achieve effective results through co-governance approach.

(1) Carry out overall planning and rational distribution. Industry is still the leading one of economic development, a country's development is inseparable from the industry, so in the future, government should have a reasonable layout of the industry, so that the process of industrial production can reduce the air pollution.

(2) Improve people's environmental awareness. People will produce harmful gas in their production and life, so to improve people's environmental awareness is an effective way to prevent and control air pollution. For example, people can use solar energy, recycled products and so on (Rinkesh, 2009).

(3) Strengthen investment in the process of the prevention and treatment of air pollution. The funds are an important guarantee for the effective promotion of various control strategies. On the one hand, the state should strengthen research funds about the energy-saving and emission reduction. On the other hand, government should strengthen the integration of social funds, and social groups and organizations should increase investment to air pollution control, such as using environmental protection equipment.

(4) Formulate the relevant law. The government's legislation is the most powerful weapon for the implementation of environmental governance, which provides institutional security for air pollution control.

4.2 A Successful Example

During the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the central and local governments in China introduced a large number of laws and regulations on pollution prevention and control which improved the laws and policies of air pollution control, and it worked, during that period, people enjoyed fresh air and blue sky. And in the face of the PM2.5 problems in recent years, Chinese government has introduced the Clean Air Research Program and the Clean Air Action Plan. With the gradual improvement of the air pollution control system, air pollution in China has been relieved, the major pollutant emissions have fallen by more than 12%. Of course, it also cannot achieve without all Chinese common efforts. It is expected that by 2020, the unit's gross domestic product will drop 23%, energy intensity decrease by 15%, and carbon emissions drop 18% (Climate home, 2016). Air pollution control is a time-consumingtask,the results will be seen gradually.After the London fog incident, the British spent more than 30 years to get rid of the “fog” title(Greater London Authority, 2002). China is at the start of pollution control now and I believe it will be effective in the future.

5. Conclusion

Air pollution caused by industrial development, urbanization process and human life activities is inevitable, and it is also an irrevocable fact that air pollution impacts on the ecological environment and human health. Society needs to develop and people need to enjoy the fresh air, clean water and green hills. So it is essential to set government, enterprises, society and individuals as a whole and control air pollution through cooperation.

Reference

Socha, T. (2007). Air Pollution Causes and Effects. Health and energy, 11.

ESchoolToday.com (2008). Air pollution - Causes of Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://eschooltoday.com/pollution/air-pollution/causes-of-air-pollution.html

Theworldcounts.com. (2014). How Does Pollution Affect Humans? Retrieved from http://www.theworldcounts.com/stories/How-Does-Pollution-Affect-Humans

Jeffrey Hays. (2008). AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat10/sub66/item392.html

Theguardian.com. (2015). Air pollution in China is killing 4,000 people every day, a new study finds. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/14/air-pollution-in-china-is-killing-4000-people-every-day-a-new-study-finds

Taylor & Francis Group. Kant’s ethics. Retrieved from http://documents.routledge-interactive.s3.amazonaws.com/9781138793934/A2/Moral/KantsEthics.pdf

Velasquez, M. (2006) Business ethics: Concepts and Cases (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Jerry A. Nathanson. (2017). Air pollution control. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/technology/air-pollution-control

Rinkesh. (2009). 41 Super Easy Ways to Stop Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/41-super-easy-ways-to-stop-air-pollution.php

Climate home. (2016). China’s Five Year Plan to radically tighten air pollution targets. Retrieved from http://www.climatechangenews.com/2016/03/11/chinas-five-year-plan-to-radically-tighten-air-pollution-targets/

Greater London Authority. (2002). MAYOR OF LONDON. Retrieved fromhttp://cleanair.london/wp-content/uploads/CAL-217-Great-Smog-by-GLA-20021.pdf

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