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Government credit crisis

2018-11-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Government credit crisis,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了政府信用危机。社会信用体系主要包括政府信用、企业信用、个人信用等,其中政府信用在社会信用体系中占主导地位,整个社会信用都是基于政府信用来推动和发展的。社会信用体系主要包括政府信用、企业信用等,其中政府信用在社会信用体系中占主导地位,整个社会信用都是基于政府信用来推动和发展的。委托—代理理论被广大学者认为是政府信任的理论基础之一,而委托—代理情况下的信息不对称也恰恰是政府信用危机的理论根源。

Government credit crisis,政府信用危机,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

As a complex mechanism to maintain social Shared value and stabilize social expectation model, "credit" is an ancient issue that must be faced in human social life. The social credit system mainly includes government credit, enterprise credit and personal credit, among which government credit plays a dominant role in the social credit system. The entire social credit is promoted and developed based on government credit. As far as the whole social credit system is concerned, the government credit is also facing a crisis. It is necessary to analyze the source of our government credit crisis and solve the problem of government credit crisis from the source. At present, the root of our government credit crisis mainly has the following aspects.

Although the government credit theory has not been put forward systematically and completely, other theoretical schools have provided abundant theoretical basis for this theory. The principal-agent theory is considered by many scholars as one of the theoretical foundations of government trust, and the information asymmetry in the case of principal-agent is exactly the theoretical root of government credit crisis. The public entrusts the executive power to the government, is the principal, the government is the public commissioned agent, the government ACTS according to the public authorization completes the entrusted public affairs. To effectively control the agent's behavior, the principal needs to know the complete information of the agent itself and the objective environment, and what kind of institutional arrangement can limit the agent's opportunism.

However, in real life, on the one hand, the government has a natural monopoly on information; on the other hand, the problems to be solved by government decision-making are becoming more and more professional. All these will lead to information asymmetry and make it difficult for the public to supervise and restrain the government. In the absence of effective supervision and restriction on government power, the relationship between principal and agent may be completely reversed, and the agent becomes a manager because of holding public power. In this way, in order to maximize their own interests, the government may turn away from the client's wishes, so that the public's wishes and interests are not responded, and the public can no longer trust the government.

Although the forms of dishonesty in government behavior are varied, they are essentially the same, that is, the government fails to perform its management and service functions properly and effectively, and fails to respond satisfactorily to the public's expectations and trust. Under the deep influence of feudal culture and planned economy system, the administrative system of Chinese government, especially local government, is not standard. It is common for departments and localities to shift responsibilities or compete for interests.

In real life, the current administrative supervision mechanism in China is lack of strength and supervision is not effective. In the administrative supervision, there are too many subjects of supervision, weak supervision, unclear supervision function and lack of independence.

So far, China has not established a complete system of administrative accountability and compensation. When the government's decision endangers the public interest, it should punish the main responsible person of the government. For a long time, it has been difficult to distinguish the subject of rights and responsibilities of administrative personnel in China. Even if there is a clear subject of responsibility, but due to the lack of strict rules of administrative procedures, when facing the issue of administrative responsibility, it is unable to pursue or does not pursue the responsibility of the responsible person.

At present, the promotion and evaluation mechanism for government officials is not sound, and too much emphasis is placed on achievements and economic benefits.

The existence and operation of government require huge fiscal expenditure. If the fiscal capacity is weak, it will limit the performance of government administrative functions. The lack of necessary financial support for the implementation of the government's administrative functions makes the government's policy implementation lack of material security, and the policy implementation is ineffective. The lack of financial resources will also lead to the lagging service of social public services, such as education, health, medical care, water and electricity, transportation and other basic public goods are in short supply.

China's administrative system has undergone reform over the past two decades, and the establishment of local governments at all levels has been adjusted and streamlined several times. Under the same financial capacity, an administrative organization with strong operation capacity and high efficiency will undoubtedly better meet the needs of social development and the public, satisfy and trust the public than an inefficient administrative organization.

In institutional economics, ideology is the main content of informal institutional arrangement. Values, social morality, customs and habits will influence people's choice behavior unconsciously. The right idea leads to the right action, and the wrong idea often leads to the wrong administrative action. The government crisis is ostensibly caused by administrative misconduct, but it is caused by the value idea in the deep level. For the government, it can adjust and change the value preference of the public through ideology, so that its ideology can be accepted by the public, and the government will have a strong prestige and gain people's trust. On the contrary, if the government's ideological mobilization is weak, it will be difficult to make the government's ideology acceptable to the public.

Providing institutional rules is an important function and responsibility of the government, which designs and organizes the implementation of new institutional arrangements according to social needs to guide the behavior of social members and meet the needs of public interests. The government also establishes legal space for the behavior of social members according to the system to build and maintain a stable social order. The system is also a constraint of the behavioral choice of "economic man". The system is the most important social trust generating mechanism in modern society. As some governments cannot maintain the authority of the system and cannot effectively implement the system, they will directly undermine the public trust in the government authority.

The subject of government behavior is government officials who also have personal interests. Of course, it is impossible to be completely detached from the relationship of social and economic interests. Under the possible conditions, they should pursue the maximization of their own interests. Especially since China's reform and opening-up, people pay more attention to pursuing their own interests, and these behavioral goals are not always consistent with the public interests. The trust of the public to the government comes from the personal experience of the real life of the society, and comes from the perception and judgment of dealing with the administrative officials of the government. When the public does not feel justice, it can undermine and undermine their trust in government.

In fact, government institutions, as an independent social and economic subject, also have their own interests, and these interests do exist. With the increasing autonomy of government institutions in the management of local public affairs, their self-interested behavior tends to be more and more strengthened, and may even be influenced by some special interest groups.

Market economy requires market unification, openness, competition and order. However, since the reform and opening up, in order to pursue high-speed economic development, many places have used administrative means to intervene in the operation of market economy, artificially splitting the market, restricting fair competition and undermining market order. When the local government USES all kinds of skills and strategies to compete for interests, the public's credit to the government is gradually lost.

In a mature market economy, the main function of the government is to guide the macro trend of the market, cultivate the market system, supervise the market operation, maintain fair competition, create a good market environment, and let the market play a leading role in the allocation of resources. However, under the influence of the long-term planned economy system, the traditional administrative thinking pattern still exists to some extent. In some local areas and departments, some administrative officials' roles are misplaced and are involved in the microeconomic activities that should not be involved. The government's dislocated role will not play the role of maintaining social justice order and social credit system, but will only become a destroyer of the credit system.

Leadership in decision-making in some places a departure from the principle of collective decision-making, don't walk the mass line, not from set out actually, according to his be fond of and merit to make some from the actual policy, not only waste a lot of manpower and material resources and financial resources, and there's no any value and benefits, lead to the public for the government's policy is not cooperate, mistrust of the government is also more.

Building good credibility requires local governments to maintain a highly cautious attitude when formulating and issuing policies, and to carry out policies consistently after they are issued. The existing administrative system, the selection and appointment of cadres, and the assessment and evaluation mechanism objectively form an incentive mechanism that induces and drives local government officials to pursue short-term economic growth performance unilaterally. This means that the government's policies are no longer stable and continuous, making people lack confidence and stable expectations for the future, thus reducing the enthusiasm of enterprises or individuals to credit, and also weakening the government's credit.

The state law is the key to guarantee the normal order of the country, the government must act within the scope permitted by law, and a good social credit environment is established on the basis of perfect institutional guarantee. It took about 150 years for western developed countries to establish a fairly complete credit legal system, which makes credit not only a moral standard but also a legal requirement under the market economy. The restriction mechanism for the government's administrative power operation has not been completely established in China, and the relevant administrative laws and regulations are abstract, normative and operational, which leads to the abuse of power by law enforcement departments and law enforcement personnel.

Chinese government information is highly confidential and less open. Many normative documents concerning public interests are not open to stakeholders and the public, and the public does not have any means or ways to obtain information. The government information is not open, and the public lacks a foundation of trust for the government. Even if the government policies are pursued to be reasonable, it is difficult to get the public's understanding and support.

In the process of the development of market economy in western countries, the social credit system is gradually completed and a relatively systematic credit system is formed. A complete social credit system plays a positive role in promoting the construction of government credit. At present, China is in the period of economic and social transformation. Due to the influence of cultural tradition, small-scale peasant economic tradition and the lack of social credit guarantee, China has not established a good social credit system at present.

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