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Marketing by multinational companies

2018-10-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Marketing by multinational companies,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了跨国公司的市场营销。在国际市场营销活动中,跨国公司采用全球标准化战略模式,通过规模经济和学习效果实现成本的节约,并且可以形成全球统一的品牌形象,实现组织结构的单元化和管理控制的程序化。从而带来低的生产、营销及管理成本,使企业能为消费者提供优质的产品,以赢得市场进入先机。

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With the increasing trend of world economic integration, more and more multinational companies take entering the global market as their strategic goal. In the process of entering the international market, whether to adopt the global marketing strategy or the local marketing strategy is an important decision faced by multinational companies. However, in actual operation, pure globalization strategy or pure localization strategy is very rare. In practice, the international marketing strategy of MNC should be between the pure global standardization and the pure localization adaptation -- the "global localization" marketing strategy. This is a new intermediate strategy model, which has been chosen by many multinational companies in international marketing activities.

In international marketing activities, multinational companies adopt a global standardized strategy mode with the focus on cost savings through economies of scale and learning effects, and can form a global unified brand image and realize the unitization of organizational structure and the program of management and control. In this way, low production, distribution, marketing and management costs can be brought, so that enterprises can provide consumers with lower prices, higher quality and more reliable products, so as to win market access.

The global standardized marketing strategy is based on the belief that the increasingly globalized development of economy, technology, market and culture makes it difficult for borders between countries to effectively divide different target markets; The demand of consumers in various countries is more and more similar, the consumption motivation and consumption mode are closer, and the world is becoming a common consumption market. For example, as many international technical standards are accepted by more and more countries and enterprises, the products produced by enterprises in various countries will eventually become globally standardized products. For another example, American pop culture dominates the global youth market: sports clothes, sports shoes, entertainment, music and movies guide the trend of global culture, which makes the cultures of various countries constantly connect with it and gradually integrate into it, and the world culture is evolving in the same direction. Under the background and situation of this global market, it is a rational choice for multinational companies to adopt the strategy of global positioning and global marketing. The standardization of products enables the company to conduct professional research more effectively, thus improving product quality. The same advertising theme, the same brand name, the same appearance and packaging, and the same corporate image are conducive to enhancing the awareness and preference of global consumers to the company's products, strengthening the company's image among customers, enabling the company resources to be more effectively configured, greatly reducing the cost, and thus enhancing the company's competitiveness. Supported by this view, Coca-Cola decided that the taste of coke was the same all over the world, while ford wanted to make "world cars" that fit the needs of most consumers in most countries.

The localization adaptation strategy mode is to treat each country as a different market separately. Multinational companies adjust the market factors for each target market, but hope to occupy a larger market share and get more benefits. The reasons for adopting this strategic model are as follows. First, a major problem that multinational companies often face when entering the international market is "cultural differences". The "Nova" brand, which is popular in the United States, has no takers in Spanish-speaking countries because it means "not to go" in Spanish. A well-prepared business selling shampoo called Evitol in Brazil soon found itself claiming to be selling "dandruff pills". Cultural differences are not only limited to language, but also include nonverbal communication, religion, values, behavior patterns, psychological thinking, customs, preferences, legal systems, etc. All of these may be potential pitfalls for multinational operation. Multinational companies must be sensitive and adaptable to the cultural differences in foreign markets and modify the marketing mix elements appropriately to meet the market demand according to the characteristics of local cultural factors. Second, although the economic integration process is getting faster and the demand of consumers around the world is more and more similar, there are still significant differences in the demand of consumers in different cultural backgrounds. For example, British people are used to drinking milk coffee, French people drink no milk coffee, Latin Americans like the smell of chrysanthemum coffee; Chinese bicycles are mainly used for transportation, while in European and American countries, they are mainly used for fitness and so on. In addition, due to extreme differences in natural and geographical conditions and huge differences in economic development levels, multinational companies are also difficult to conduct global standardized marketing. Is based on the above reasons, nestle in the production line and advertisement are different in different countries, the company believes in different countries, consumers in the geographic, demographic characteristics, knowledge, culture difference is very big, cause its demand, purchasing power, product preferences and shopping way each are not identical, enterprises should adjust marketing strategy and planning every country to adapt to the consumer's unique needs.

In fact, a completely unified global standardized marketing strategy seems unrealistic and difficult to implement. An unsuccessful standardized marketing can have disastrous consequences for a company. Although standardization can significantly increase the yield and the profit of the company's products, but in all the places in a way of marketing a product will scare away customers, alienating employees, and will make the company to ignore the needs of the customers, the company's relationship with the local market have been slow to respond, reduces the ability to adapt to target market customer behavior, and in the local loss of competitiveness. However, pure localization is costly and ineffective. The localization strategy greatly improves the cost of the company to enter the international market, reduces the company's competition ability, and causes the company to lose many opportunities to enter the international market. Therefore, the intermediate strategic mode of "glocalization" is the ideal choice for most multinational companies.

Glocalization strategy is a kind of "global thinking, local action" strategy. It thinks about "local" problems from a global perspective and takes local problems into the whole of global marketing. Glocalization recognizes that standardized marketing is simply a philosophy of mind that can be applied only to certain brands, places, and times, and that achieving perfect standardization at every possible level is impossible. It focuses on seeking the unity and commonality of global macro and overall in some strategic elements such as product pricing, brand cultivation and image building, and supplemented by "localization action" to adapt to local market environment and cultural characteristics to ensure the success of global marketing. That is to adopt adaptive strategies in marketing elements directly related to the marketing environment and local customers. Coca-Cola, for example, sells the same coke drinks around the world, but its AD campaigns in specific markets are specifically designed and have cross-cultural appeal. Not only that, but the company sells many other drinks made specifically for local tastes. Similarly, McDonald's USES the same recipe, standardized service and management in its chain stores around the world, while adjusting its recipes to local tastes: in India, where cattle are considered sacred, McDonald's serves chicken, fish and vegetable burgers instead of beef burgers; In China; McDonald's is mostly fast food in line with the dietary habits of Chinese consumers. It also carries out a variety of localized promotion strategies, such as providing customers with tang dynasty mascots - kittens and other New Year decorations, celebrating the Spring Festival with Chinese consumers and donating xinhua dictionary to students in poor areas.

The global localization marketing strategy integrates the advantages of global standardization and local adaptability. It not only reduces the cost, but also ADAPTS to the difference of consumers' demands in different countries, so as to better meet the demands of consumers in the target market, so as to seize the opportunity for the company to enter the target market and raise the threshold for competitors to enter. In practice, different multinational companies adopt this strategy in different ways: some have high degree of standardization, some have high degree of adaptability, which depends on factors such as environment, company's own characteristics, product characteristics, industry situation and competitor strategy. However, most multinational companies have something in common when they choose this strategic mode to enter the international market: standardization first, localization later. First USES the standardization strategy, such as: standardized products, standardized service and standardized image, standardized operation and standardized management, through a low cost, low price, to win market access opportunities, expand overseas markets, globally, on the basis of gradually adapt to the culture of the host country market, gradually localization.

It is worth noting that the first problem in the process of globalization is to overcome cultural differences. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to and strengthen cross-cultural marketing management and adapt to local culture: conduct extensive research on the culture of the target market country, and timely and accurately grasp the changes of local market culture. Market positioning is accurate. According to the characteristics of local cultural factors, the name, brand packaging, modeling design, color, text, advertising promotion, public relations and other aspects of the original products are appropriately modified to adapt to the preferences and needs of local consumers. Such as Coca-Cola company expand lemonade in Hong Kong, for the original brand name translation is "is will force" sales is very limited, the company in the light of the Chinese cultural background of Hong Kong residents and Chinese characteristics, changed its name to "Sprite", the name is both elegant and pure and fresh and easy to remember, by including Hong Kong, mainland China, a huge market. Implement "adaptive management" to make the company's corporate culture compatible with local culture. For example, the localization of human resources, the localization of management center, capital finance, technology research and development can all cooperate with the local and carry out localization. This has been proved by the successful practices of many multinational companies. In this way, a multinational company can become both a global organization and a local organization, realize the integration and integration of globalization and localization, and finally form the "global localization" -- a brand new international marketing strategy model.

The above marketing strategy model is only the means of international marketing rather than the goal of international marketing, the goal of international marketing is to establish the enterprise's competitive advantage in the international market. In the specific practice, multinational companies should decide on the standardization in terms of the environment, company characteristics, product characteristics, industry and competitor strategies they face. In what ways? High degree of standardization or localization? And the timing of global standardization and local adaptation. The essence of international marketing success lies in dealing with the relationship between globalization and localization, achieving cost saving and economies of scale through global standardization, and then entering the target market and integrating into local culture through local adaptation. "Glocalization" takes global themes and sees adaptation as necessary to meet local tastes and needs, and effectively handles the dialectical unity between the two. Therefore, "glocalization" marketing strategy is the ideal mode of international marketing activities of multinational companies.

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