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北美作业代写:The complexity of the state of play

2018-09-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The complexity of the state of play,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了竞技状态的复杂性。在竞技极值化和多赛制的背景下,传统的竞技状态理论为所规定的线性、确定和有序的行为逻辑,在不断涌现出的复杂性面前逐渐失去解释力和预言力。竞技状态复杂性可以看成竞技状态系统所包含的信息量,这个信息量实际上又反映了竞技状态系统差异的多少。

 state of play,竞技状态,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Under the background of extreme competitive value and multi-competition system, the traditional competitive state theory is the linear, definite and orderly behavioral logic prescribed by high-level athletes for successful competition, which gradually loses its explanatory power and predictive power in the face of the constantly emerging "complexity". Complexity impacts the traditional scientific view of certainty. To reveal the complexity of the state of competition and to clear up its complexity requires not only the rational cognition, but also the practical problem that the practice has to deal with. Based on the perspective of complexity science, this paper intends to analyze the complexity of competitive state, explain the complexity characteristics of competitive state, and on this basis, give the complexity paradigm of the theory and practice of competitive state research.

Under the background of extreme value and multi-competition system of modern competitive sports, the problem of athletes' competing state is becoming more and more prominent. Why is it difficult to maintain or improve the sports performance in accordance with the track and mode of success in the past to reproduce the best competitive state that athletes have ever displayed? Why do athletes win the world series in a row and lose unexpectedly at the Olympics? Why did the construction of such a "stable" state of play in the entire Olympic cycle suddenly collapse? These seemingly "simple" but extremely "complex" problems have far exceeded the original competitive state theory territory, and constantly shake and weaken our rational dogmatic paradigm. The linear, deterministic and orderly behavioral logic that the theory of competitive state provides for the successful participation of high-level athletes has gradually lost its explanatory power and predictive power in the face of the constantly emerging nonlinear, uncertain and disordered complexity factors.

Complexity impacts the traditional scientific view of deterministic state of competition. To reveal the complexity of the state of competition and to clarify its complexity requires not only the rational cognition, but also the practical problem that the practice has to deal with. Based on the perspective of complexity science, this paper intends to analyze the complexity of competitive state, explain the complexity characteristics of competitive state, and on this basis, give the complexity paradigm of theoretical and practical research on competitive state.

The complexity of competitive state can be regarded as the amount of information contained in the system of competitive state. The amount of information actually reflects the difference of competitive state system. And system difference mainly refers to the difference between the elements of competitive state system, or the difference of system structure. Therefore, we can define the complexity of competitive state as: the complexity of competitive state refers to the sum of the differences in the system structure of competitive state.

What phenomenon is called the complexity of competitive state? To borrow the definition of scientific phenomena, we can regard the complex phenomenon of competitive state as the complex phenomenon of competitive state. Such as, athletes in the world series repeated "clark" or "Choking" phenomenon. The phenomenon satisfies the repeatability, that is, the phenomenon discovered must be reappeared, the phenomenon that cannot be reappeared is unprovable, we cannot prove either its existence or its nonexistence, therefore, it cannot be called the complex phenomenon of competitive state. The repeatability of phenomena indicates that there is a certain identity between two or more phenomena.

Under the premise of complex identity, any phenomenon generated in the competitive state system, as long as it contains such an identity condition as "reproducibility", should be a complex phenomenon of the competitive state, and thus can be a pair of images for the study of competitive state. However, if some complex phenomena of competitive state contain some identity, there may be some regularity among them. Due to the complexity of the identity of competitive state system, the research object of competitive state becomes complex, thus making the phenomena and laws of competitive state become complex. For example, there are hundreds of factors that have been found to influence the state of competition. They share a common essence -- they exist according to the characteristics of sports and specific performance, which is their fundamental identity. However, each factor has its own special form, which contains special identity different from other factors. This special identity determines that each factor form can be the object of the study of competitive state. In this way, we can show that the object of study of competitive state is extremely complex, and therefore, the phenomena and laws of competitive state are extremely complex.

Matviev's theory of competitive state is to reduce the complex process of acquiring athletic performance into three periodic stages of "gaining", "keeping" and "disappearing", and corresponds to the three periods of "preparation", "competition" and "transition" in the training process. In the three training periods, through different combinations of load capacity and load intensity to develop a variety of training and special training in different proportions, it promotes the orderly and periodic development of competitive state and improves with the spiral of athletic performance. Although the scientific nature of the hypothesis of the state of competition still lacks precise evidence, in the decades of successful application of the theory in practice, people always regard it as the "universal law" and guide and restrict the development of the theory and practice of the training cycle.

In the 90 s, almost all the competitive events format, profound changes have taken place in the high level athletes must participate in games and for the whole year showed a higher frequency of competitive state is beyond the stipulation of the theory of competitive state, original is in the world within the scope of the training cycle theory to extensive and profound discussions, the focus of the discussion focused on supporting the core of competitive state theory, namely the general training and specific training proportion and strength of the relationship between the load and load. Although the discussion and the dispute are still going on, the discussion and the dispute do not get rid of the simple paradigm that people are used to pursuing certainty and causal necessity from the perspective of methodology. Isolated view of the central role of local capacity, or machinery to determine the proportion of the general training and specific training, attempt to grasp of the existence of competitive state macro and micro foundation, apparently, has violated the system property with the work Can not depend on the specific local factors and some local relations, but the overall relationship between all elements, elements combination as a way for the system as a whole system of thought.

The competitive state theory meets the challenge of complexity, which forces us to change the scientific paradigm of the research of competitive state theory. What is the complexity feature of competitive state? What are the complex features of competitive state? These are the two most fundamental problems in the study of the state of competition. When we study the complexity of competitive state with complex scientific paradigm, we need to answer what is the complexity of competitive state? This is a self-extroverted and internal limited convergence process, which requires us to examine the similarity problem of the complexity of the competitive state of different sports, extract the universality rule with cross-sectional significance, and give the scientific nature and regulation of the theoretical study of competitive state. When we think about the complexity of competitive state in a philosophical way, we need to answer what is the complexity of competitive state? This is a process of infinite divergence from the inside to the outside, which interprets the connotation of complex features of competitive state and endows the theoretical study of competitive state with richness and depth. It can be said that the theoretical basis of the complexity characteristics of competitive state can only be clearly revealed in the perspective of complexity. If this point is not recognized, the research on competitive state theory will repeat its past deviation.

In exploring complex systems, complexity science usually starts with the characteristics of complex systems. Based on the characteristics of the competitive sports itself and competitive state differences in system structure, surrounding the integrity of the competitive state, the correlation between the elements and parts After the emergent properties of a whole, we will focus on competitive state of the complexity of the system structure, system function of complex form, competitive state of the complexity of the system network and the complexity of the system evolution of form.

The emergence of the whole behavior of competitive state is actually the result of the synchronicity of the function of each system element and the consistency of the function state of the system element. When the environmental rules are applied in practice to meet the development conditions of the competitive state itself, the functional state of the subsystem elements of the competitive state will gradually reach a consistent feature. At the same time, the output of the functional state of the competitive state system will gradually converge and then achieve a synergistic consistency, that is, the system functions have reached synchronization. For example, in developing muscle strength, fast muscle fiber units and slow muscle fiber units are recruited differently, depending on the strength and load. Under the condition of submaximum and maximum load, the slow muscle fiber movement unit could not get effective training. However, if the number of exercises is not up to the maximum weight, some of the fast muscle fiber exercise units will not be trained as well. This indicates that the nerve-muscle system has a selective adaptation to the training load. If it fails to meet the requirements of the target state of the system, the behavioral function of the system cannot be effectively developed and the functional structure of the system cannot be effectively amplified and converged.

Network is an important concept for us to understand the state of competition. It is a kind of imitation of the overall structure of the state of competition. The purpose is to describe and explain the complex characteristics of the prototype of the state of competition, such as its nature, structure, function and evolution. The state of competition is a complex system. Only through the form of "network" can the multi-level, multi-variable and multi-objective elements be organically linked together and can be expressed more accurately. Because the state of play is an abstract concept, and the "network" is the micro-foundation on which the abstract concept can exist. The formation and development of the state of competition depends on the network formed by linking each other with specific relations among the elements of the system. Whether the elements of the state of competition and even elements of the system can form effective links with other elements of the network depends on whether they comply with the common rules, namely, project characteristics, special achievements and adaptive requirements. The network of the state of competition system is linked together by the characteristics of competitive events. The basic operation mechanism of the state of competition network is the improvement of special performance and special ability. Only those elements that fit the characteristics of the project and operate in a way that enhances performance and competence can be linked together. Those elements that do not conform to the characteristics of the project or are not conducive to the improvement of special performance and ability, even if the link with other elements will not only not improve the function of the behavior of the state system of competition, but even undermine the formation of the state network of the state system of competition. Therefore, the performance frequency, stability and height of competitive state are affected by the nature of the link of competitive state network elements.

The complexity of competitive state system network refers to the uncertainty of network elements and their number of links, link mode and link behavior. The competitive state is the result of the continuous evolution of the system network. With the continuous replacement and update of the competitive state network, the function of the network is amplified in the evolution, and at the same time, the networkability of the elements is increasingly strengthened. The various elements of the competitive state network are in different states in the link, which can be divided into two states in general: link and break. In link state, there are two kinds of normal link and non-normal link. Within normal links, the degree of linking varies. In the normal link network state, the key elements and secondary elements of the link can be divided into core elements and marginal elements according to the effect and degree of factors on the support of special sports performance. Those elements that play a central role in the specific competitive ability and have a leading and guiding role for other elements are key elements, and they are at the center of the competitive status network. Those who play the supporting factors for the specific performance of sports belong to the secondary factors and are at the edge of the competitive state network.

In the process of competitive state network evolution and under the constraints of the rules of the network, the various elements of an orderly flow and optimized allocation of at the same time, will emerge to form network formation inhibition, weaken, block effect factors, once the contact normal links on these factors, becomes a kind of abnormal links, or pathological links. This abnormal link is destructive or subversive to the normal link of competitive state, which leads to the loss of competitive state. The difference between high level and low level of competition is largely due to the break of the original elements linked to the competitive status network. Link and break are the inherent logic of the specialized integration of competitive events in the state of competition network, as well as the inevitable result of deepening understanding of special features and selection of special training methods. In the networking process of competitive state, the space and time positioning requirements of special features are more precise than ever. Only those elements that meet the requirements of specialized integration and are conducive to improving and stabilizing the performance of special sports can become the elements of the network of competitive state. Some factors that are not conducive to the improvement of special performance may be gradually marginalized and break with the network of competitive state.

The study and thinking of the complexity of the state of competition is just like what Lao zi said: "tao gives birth to one, life to two, two to three, and three to all things..." Is full of contradictions and confusion, we can neither to follow the traditional competitive state theory and may lead to simplicity, also cannot expect richness and possible in ambiguity, but we cannot therefore let form complexity research, simplicity, again because it does not help explain and solve many important we face competitive state theory and the practice question.

The profound reflection on the traditional competitive state theory lies in clarifying the core of our thoughts rather than creating more theories. To view the rationality of competitive state from the perspective of complexity, it must be rooted in scientific methodology and rigorous philosophical thinking, as well as to capture the sparks of uncertain thoughts and sort out the complexity issues emerging from training practice. The more we think about the state of play, the more firmly we will believe that "there is no simple thing in nature, only simplified things".

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