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作业代写:New trade protectionism

2018-09-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- New trade protectionism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了新贸易保护主义。在保持与协定一致、非故意和非歧视的前提下,世界贸易组织允许各国自主设定进口贸易标准。因此,发达国家利用自己在技术和劳工等方面的优势,将其纳入保护主义的范畴,形成了新贸易保护主义。发达国家通常通过制定严格的技术标准、树立绿色贸易壁垒或者滥用世界贸易组织的救济措施等方式来实施新贸易保护主义。

New trade protectionism,新贸易保护主义,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

With the rise of multilateral trade, some countries are changing their ways to protect domestic industries. China's foreign trade has also been affected by new trade protectionism. Through the analysis of the main forms, characteristics and trends of new trade protectionism, this paper discusses the causes and effects of new trade protectionism, and puts forward China's countermeasures.

The WTO allows countries to set their own import standards, consistent with the agreement, without intent or discrimination. Therefore, developed countries take advantage of their advantages in technology, environmental protection and labor to bring them into the scope of protectionism, which is the new trade protectionism. Developed countries usually implement new trade protectionism by setting strict technical standards, erecting green trade barriers, adopting high intellectual property standards or abusing WTO remedies.

There are various reasons for the emergence of new trade protectionism, but the fundamental reason is the rapid expansion of the export scale of big developing countries represented by China, India and other countries. A large number of low-price industrial products have entered the European and American markets, which has impacted their domestic related industries and made developed countries feel threatened. In order to hinder the exports of developing countries, ease the trade deficit and various domestic contradictions, the new trade protectionism has naturally become an important means for developed countries to impose trade sanctions on these large developing export countries.

The essence of new trade protectionism is in line with traditional trade protectionism. As the second largest trading country in the world, China's foreign trade has been seriously affected by the new trade protectionism.

As the market share of China's products in the international market continues to expand, developed countries continue to impose trade restrictions on China, so that Chinese enterprises constantly encounter anti-dumping, countervailing and various safeguard measures, involving products and huge losses. According to the statistics of the ministry of commerce of the People's Republic of China, in the first three quarters of 2010, only the eu launched 10 trade remedy investigations on Chinese products, which exceeded the number of cases filed in 2009, and the amount involved increased significantly. The products involved extended from the traditional fields such as light industry and textile to the high-tech fields such as electromechanics and electronics.

Developed countries frequently used new trade protectionism measures to limit China's trade exports, and the resulting trade friction is more and more intense. From January to May 2010, a total of 14 countries launched 31 trade remedy investigations on Chinese products, with a total case value of about 1.8 billion us dollars. At the same time, developing countries are also taking part. India, Argentina, South Africa, Turkey and other countries have implemented relatively rapid increase in anti-dumping investigations on Chinese exports. Since 1995, these four countries have initiated 178 anti-dumping investigations against China, accounting for 41% of the total number of anti-dumping investigations. China has become the first target and largest victim of trade frictions.

The prevalence of "new trade protectionism" makes it more difficult for Chinese enterprises to expand the international market. To some extent, it leads to the deterioration of the external environment of China's foreign trade development. In addition to product friction, China's trade frictions are also intertwined in institutional and policy levels, such as RMB exchange rate, market access, intellectual property rights, and "carbon tariffs", which are not conducive to the long-term and stable development of China's foreign trade.

While the developed countries frequently impose restrictions on Chinese products with new trade protectionism, the contradictions between foreign enterprises and Chinese manufacturers have become intensified. The incidents of "smashing shops" and "burning goods" have occurred from time to time. The normalization of "political cold" between China and Japan has had a negative impact on bilateral economic and trade relations. In addition, a small number of developed members of the WTO continue to create, copy and disseminate the "China threat theory", deliberately inducing the growth of trade protectionism in a wider range, which has greatly affected China's international image.

After the 2008 financial crisis, China's economic growth and export trade showed strong development. However, under the influence of new trade protectionism, China's foreign trade development was seriously restricted. The situation of textile manufacturing, garment manufacturing, machinery manufacturing and electronic product processing industry is more and more difficult even if they have comparative advantages and competitiveness. In the face of the ever-changing international environment, it is essential to respond promptly to new trade protectionism. The following Suggestions are made in this paper.

At present, China has liberalized the right to operate foreign trade, and most enterprises can independently decide on import and export. Government in our country foreign trade management departments at different levels should arrange annual product exports, strictly carry out export quotas, export license and tariff quotas and other effective measures, through the transformation of the mode of trade growth, cancelled or reduced export tax rebates and other preferential policies to guide the enterprises to focus on improving product quality and improve export benefit. The government should strongly encourage enterprises with comparative advantages to shift their focus from export trade to trade and investment, and strengthen planning guidance on "going global".

In addition, we should actively adopt international standards, carry out international certification work, and take the initiative to participate in the formulation, revision and coordination of international standards, so that our products meet the quality requirements of developed countries and fundamentally prevent various trade barriers.

At present, the trade barriers of developed countries are constantly innovated and technical regulations and standards are constantly revised. If the enterprise information is not available, it cannot adapt to the changes. Therefore, relevant departments in China should establish the early warning mechanism of trade barriers as soon as possible, and establish the information center and database of trade barriers. Establish relevant information databases and websites open to the society to facilitate enterprise inquiry and provide related consulting services for enterprises.

At the same time, China should fully enjoy the rights of WTO members when assuming the obligations of WTO members. We should take the initiative to make use of the relief mechanism within the WTO framework to actively defend our trade protection and protect our economic interests.

We should actively participate in multilateral, bilateral and regional economic negotiations, strengthen communication with other countries, enable more countries to recognize our market economy status and create a favorable international environment for domestic enterprises.

In addition, the government should take an active part in international negotiations and improve the WTO rules that bind the members of developed and developing countries, so as to avoid developed countries' difficulties in exploiting the loopholes in the WTO rules and reduce frictions.

Domestic enterprises can collect and update information through news media, overseas agencies and other channels. Under the guidance and coordination of industry chamber of commerce and other institutions, enterprises in the industry shall strengthen communication and cooperation, exchange trade information, cooperate with external parties and seek common interests. At the same time, we should also actively carry out "folk" lobby, state the pros and cons, win support from the trading partner chamber of commerce, industry and consumers, and some government agencies to understand, as far as possible delay or reduce the impact of foreign implementation safeguard measures in our country and losses, and even stop the implementation of the safeguard measures, maximize their trade interests.

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