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作业代写:Credit management

2018-09-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Credit management,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了信贷管理。贷款新规借鉴国外银行的成熟信贷实践和创新,对国内银行业贷款管理制度进行了重大变更和补充完善,对贷款各个环节的具体信贷行为均进行了规范,体现了监管机构统一的信贷管理新理念。贷款新规强调对贷款实施全流程管理,即信贷管理以过程管理为主。对信贷管理新理念的提炼和总结,有助于从更高的层次理解新规的科学性和先进性,把握新规的管理思想精髓,更好地指导贯彻新规的实践活动。

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Recently, the CBRC has promulgated the "interim measures on the management of fixed assets loans", "interim measures on the management of working capital loans", "interim measures on the management of personal loans" and "guidelines on project financing business". The new loan regulations refer to the mature credit practice of foreign Banks and the credit innovation of domestic Banks, which have significantly changed and improved the loan management system of China's banking industry and standardized the specific credit behavior of each link of the loan. These norms are diverse and varied, but all reflect a new concept of uniform credit management by regulators.

Process management refers to a management mode in which the organization regards management as a process in order to achieve the preset goal or task, and designs, controls and improves all the links involved in the process, so as to effectively achieve the preset goal of the organization and individuals.

Process management is based on total quality management, focusing on full participation and continuous improvement, and achieving organizational goals through controlling process links and various factors.

As we know, the new loan regulation emphasizes the full process management of loans, that is, the credit management is mainly process management. Scientific and reasonable credit business management is a process of avoiding risks and obtaining benefits to ensure the safety, liquidity and profitability of credit funds. Every credit business will face many risks. Process management achieves the purpose of preventing risks and realizing benefits through the established operation procedures and the control of each link.

The new loan regulation breaks down the loan management process into nine major links, and makes mandatory specifications on tasks, working methods, management systems and other aspects of each link, requiring commercial Banks to realize the credit goal of preventing risks through loan process management. The process management of bank credit is decided by the unique features of credit.

The complexity of credit requires the concentration of the wisdom and power of more people. Dividing the credit into multiple links will help more professionals to participate in the division of labor. Credit losses at the same time with great personal compensation limited determines the credit position objectively to power, the unity, any level of credit management and the person in charge, all can't loan losses for full compensation, not only through the accountability mechanism to effectively control the moral risk behavior, dereliction of duty, must therefore be permissions of each link of credit personnel constraints, rather than rely on self-discipline. A management by objectives model that asks only the results, not the process, does not apply to credit management.

Modern management believes that scientific management has three levels, namely standardization, refinement and personalization. Fine management is a kind of management mode that leads the routine management to the depth. It requires every step of management to be careful, every link to be precise and every work to be excellent. Elaboration is attitude, refinement is process and excellence is achievement. Fine management is to implement the management responsibility, specific and explicit management responsibility, it requires every manager to be in place, due diligence.

Loan the new rules would refine three check for the loan application, accept and investigation, risk assessment, loan examination and approval, the contract is signed, loans, loan payments, post-loan management, recycling and disposal of nine major link of every link of intensification of regulation, emphasize the effective credit risk management behavior through to the loan every link of life cycle, and strictly require Banks to implement the responsibility of each link to the specific departments and jobs, and to establish assessment and accountability mechanism of each position, boost lending management mode from the extensive to fine.

In other words, "delicacy" refers to the intensive management of bank credit in the past. The refinement of bank credit management is a gradual process and a deepening process. Although the management of Banks has become more and more sophisticated with the deepening of market operation, the current management mode is still extensive. The most obvious manifestation lies in the post-loan management stage, which only has a general description of the tasks, objectives and working methods of the post-loan management stage, and lacks scientific and systematic theoretical guidance. Management floats on the surface, formalism is serious in management practice, and management stays at the level of "almost". In the past, for example, Banks only focused on monitoring the use of credit funds in preventing corporate misappropriation of loans.

For the above phenomena, the new loan regulation puts forward more detailed management requirements, and clearly strengthens management from five aspects of scientific assessment before loan, agreement commitment, payment review, post-loan monitoring and default compensation. The new rules will extend the management of the use of funds from the original post-supervision of a link, to the pre-forecast, the review in the event, post-supervision of three links.

The spirit of contract of the new loan regulation is mainly reflected in three aspects: first, the two parties of the loan prior to the use of the loan, payment method, post-loan enterprise behavior, liability for breach of contract and other content involving the security of credit assets to negotiate on an equal footing. Secondly, the result of negotiation is written into the loan contract to clarify the rights and obligations of both parties. Third, the default must assume the corresponding compensation responsibility.

The so-called spirit of contract refers to the existence in commodity economy and society, and the contract relationship derived from this and the internal principles is a kind of free, equal and trustworthy spirit. The spirit of contract advocates a kind of rule of conduct that is equal, legal, trustworthy and socially recognized. It is a rule that represents human civilization and progress.

It is well known that the free market economy prevailing in today's world is the rule of law economy as well as the contract economy. Free market economy is based on voluntary transactions, commercial contracts and market rules that regulate people's trading behavior and economic activities. In this sense, the spirit of contract is the soul of market economy. Without the spirit of contract and commercial integrity, there will be no developed market economy.

For most of our history, the economy of our country was self-sufficient natural economy, lacking developed commodity economy. In politics, it is a centralized autocracy and lacks an independent judicial system. There is a strong sense of hierarchy in culture and a lack of social concepts of freedom and equality. The civilization of contract cannot be produced in such a soil of small-scale peasant economy and autocracy. With the deepening of reform and opening up, commodity economy is gradually developed and the legal system is increasingly improved. Equality, voluntariness, fairness and honesty have become the foundation of social and economic exchanges. Under this background, the new regulation of loan emphasizes the spirit of contract in the credit relationship. It restrains the behaviors of both parties and protects the rights and obligations of both parties by emphasizing the completeness of the contract, the seriousness of the law of commitment and even the systematization of management.

Equality and voluntariness is the basic principle of economic communication between the borrowing and lending sides as equal subjects of market economy. With the development of market economy, the content of regulations has been improved and refined. The commercial banking law, which came into force on July 1, 1995, clearly stipulates that "the commercial Banks shall abide by the principles of equality, voluntariness, fairness and good faith in their business dealings with customers", but does not set specific terms to restrict the conduct of both parties. On August 1, 1996 of the "general", besides reiterated its lending activities comply with the principles of equality, voluntary, has also made clear the specific behavior, voluntary "loan, the lender like the borrower independent lending, the borrower shall have the right to full use of the loan, shall have the right to refuse to loan contract conditions, the lender has the right to know the production and business operation and financial activities of the borrower, etc. In addition to reaffirming the principle of equality and voluntariness, the new loan regulation significantly complements specific credit practices, emphasizes real payment and basically abandons the traditional practice of real payment. Real lending and real payment require both parties to negotiate the issuance and use of loans, which is the inheritance, development and refinement of the principle of equal voluntary credit.

We know that China's new loan regulations mainly refer to the common practices of Banks in western developed market economies for the modification of loan issuance methods. Due to the mature market environment and market players in western developed countries, there is basically no unique domestic phenomenon of "real loan deposit" and "derivative deposit". Banks will not make loans on the basis of unclear use of customer loans, and customers will not keep certain loan balance in order to maintain their relationship with Banks.

The new loan regulation requires enterprises to decide the use time of the loan according to their own needs, and use it immediately after the loan is issued, so as to reduce idle time as much as possible. It reduces the interest expense of enterprises from the micro level and conforms to the goal of maximization of enterprise benefit in the market economy. From the macro level, it improves the efficiency of resource allocation. It does not allow large amounts of loan funds to remain in corporate accounts, and it also restricts the irrational competition of Banks to reduce the credit threshold for the purpose of falsely increasing deposits.

The so-called mutual restriction principle in credit management refers to the key links in the credit process through post restriction, department restriction and bank internal and external restriction in order to reduce moral risk and decision-making risk.

In the credit practice, personal moral risk comes from two aspects: on the one hand, moral risk arising from personal quality; on the other hand, the risk base line behavior of easing risk caused by conflicts of interest due to the combination of business development and credit management by specific operators. In addition to strengthening the thought of education and reducing the pressure of business development, the prevention of individual moral risk should also be controlled from the process by establishing the mutual restriction management system. At the same time, the quality of credit assets determines the life and death of the bank, and the credit environment is very complicated. The credit decision-making should consider the development of the bank and control the risk within the tolerable range, and introduce the mutual restriction mechanism, which is beneficial for professionals to participate in decision-making and reduce decision-making mistakes.

The constant application of mutual restraint principle throughout the whole process of credit system reform is a complete subversion of the old credit management system. The separation of loan examination and loan stipulated in the commercial bank law is the first time to introduce the mutual restriction principle in the credit process. The new loan regulation emphasizes that loan release and separate control is a new development of mutual restriction principle, the whole process outsourcing implied internal and external restriction is a new form of mutual restriction principle, and the individual loan guarantee loan completed by two or more credit personnel is a new requirement of mutual restriction principle.

While the new rules require full process management of credit, the focus is on risk prevention. The new loan regulation has only principle requirements for the management of non-performing loans, and a large amount of space is put into the risk prevention of the eight earlier credit links.

A lot of experience shows, in the course of credit operation, risk hidden danger is discovered earlier, the loss rate that its cause is reduced. According to the statistical analysis of j.p.orgen bank, the contribution rate to reduce the actual loss is 50-60% if the risk is predicted before the loan decision and the precontrol measures are taken. If the risk is detected and remedied rapidly in the post-loan management process, the contribution rate to reduce the actual loss is 25-30%; Post-treatment, when the risk is exposed, is less than 20% effective. China's four largest asset management companies have a net recovery rate of less than 20 percent for nonperforming loans taken out of Banks. Therefore, the banking industry should pay attention to front-end risk control, which can achieve twice the result with half the effort. In the credit management practice of western Banks, the borrowers of non-performing loans generally need to enter the bankruptcy process and be handled by accounting firms or law firms. The creditor Banks are paid in proportion, so there is little room for individual Banks to play a role in the settlement.

Therefore, in the credit management, the main focus on the early risk identification and prevention. Domestic banking sector is also the same reality, the enterprise because of capital chain rupture, are in a state of closed production, the original basic depreciation of intangible assets such as trademark, customer relationship, because of the need to remove the machine equipment, transportation, reinstall, actual value, the most valuable only land use right, but the land use right treatment after a large number of workers to be resettled, so under the condition of the value of assets shrunk dramatically, a very low percentage of creditors.

Therefore, it can be said that the credit management concept, which focuses on prevention, fully conforms to the best practice of the regulatory experience of developed market countries and advanced international Banks, and is also the best choice for credit management under the reality of low non-performing asset recovery rate in China.

The new lending rules emphasize the inclusion of borrowers' affiliates and related transactions into the scope of due diligence. Even if only one company applies for a loan in a bank, it should pay attention to the overall risk of the company's group and its related relationships.

Compared with individual customers, credit risk is not only affected by the repayment ability of customers, but also affected by the overall risk of the group. The overall risk spreads and spreads in the group members through the product chain, capital chain and guarantee chain among the group members. Therefore, the credit management of group customers should include the group's overall risk, associated transaction, associated capital occupation and associated guarantee as three risk transmission channels into the scope of investigation, review and monitoring.

Under the new situation of increasingly collectivization of enterprise organizational structure, it is imperative to expand risk management objects from individual enterprises to the whole group.

The new loan regulation for the first time introduces the new concept of all-round monitoring of the borrower's cash flow in the form of departmental regulations, requiring the monitoring of the borrower's cash inflow and outflow and paying attention to the inflow and outflow of large and abnormal funds. Compared with the original loan fund use monitoring, the monitoring object is expanded from the loan fund to the whole enterprise cash flow, including cash inflow and outflow. The monitoring period is extended from the short term to the long term. The monitoring method is developed from the bank active monitoring to the enterprise active cooperation.

"Know your customer", "know your customer's business" is the basic, to ensure the safety of credit funds, but as the credit market the competition for the purpose of maintaining credit relationship, understand customer is difficult to implement real, individual bank customers manager understanding of customers is very superficial, even it appropriate credit funds of the enterprise behavior. The mandatory requirement of the new loan regulation to monitor the cash flow of borrowers is conducive to the bank to strengthen the understanding and supervision of the borrower's business, to timely discover the behavior of misappropriation of credit funds, to limit the irrational competition between Banks, and to improve the position of the banking industry in the credit negotiation.

New loan rules can be said to be a new thing, "new" in the specific regulatory requirements and the concept of credit management. The refinement and summary of the new concept of credit management will help to understand the scientific and advanced nature of the new regulation from a higher level, grasp the essence of the management thought of the new regulation, and better guide the practice activities of implementing the new regulation.

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