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作业代写:Masnavi

2018-09-10 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Masnavi,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了《玛斯纳维》。《玛斯纳维》被誉为波斯语的《古兰经》,在伊朗宗教文化中具有崇高的地位和深远的影响。《玛斯纳维》是苏非神秘主义思想的集大成之作,涵盖了苏非神秘主义思想的方方面面。在当前的国际局势下,《玛斯纳维》中的和平主义思想对国际关系的发展具有重大意义。

Masnavi, known as "the Koran in Persian," has high status and far-reaching influence in Iran's religious culture. Masnavi is a masterpiece of sufi mysticism, covering all aspects of sufi mysticism, such as god's love, self-cultivation, self-annihilation, unity of the human being and so on. Chinese and foreign scholars have fully expounded these thoughts. Recently, I re-read Masnavi and learned that an important idea that had not been taken seriously before was that people of different faiths should respect each other and understand each other. Mr. Khatami, the former President of Iran, proposed "dialogue among civilizations" in response to huntington's "clash of civilisations" during his time in office. Mr. Khatami's proposal was widely endorsed and supported by the world, and the United Nations therefore designated 2001 as the year of civilized dialogue. Mr. Khatami's pacifism of "civilized dialogue" is undoubtedly in line with Iran's own religious, cultural and ideological traditions. Therefore, in the current international situation, it is undoubtedly of great significance to re-read Masnavi and highlight its pacifist thoughts.

As a kind of social ideology, religion runs through the spiritual life and social life of believers, so that believers have a sense of belonging and have a strong cohesive force. Religion arises from people's cognition of a kind of supernatural force, and the limitation of human cognitive ability makes people's cognition of this kind of supernatural force varies greatly. Therefore, the development history of human society for thousands of years, from primitive religion to national religion and world religion, has produced various religions. The limitation of human cognitive ability and strong sense of belonging reinforce the correctness of religion. When the sense of "self-correctness" is reinforced, it is likely to breed exclusivity and evolve into "self-correctness". However, we should realize that this kind of exclusivity is caused by the limitations of the believers' cognitive ability and strong sense of belonging, rather than the inevitable feature of religion itself. Domestic some scholars think that produced in Syria civilization is a monotheistic religion, "only my correctness" and "exclusive", and therefore easy to contradictions and conflicts caused by religious differences, while China's Confucian civilization inclusive, is a kind of gentle and tathagata civilization form, less could lead to conflict, to think the Confucian civilization to ease the current tension of the international situation is favourable. In the author's opinion, such a view itself is generated under a strong sense of belonging, and to some extent it is just a reflection of "solipsistic correctness" and "exclusivity", which only sees the superficial phenomenon of monotheistic religion, but not its internal essence. As far as Islam is concerned, under the influence of western discourse hegemony, Islam is depicted as an "exclusive", "belligerent", "intolerant" religion, and even many people who do not know about Islam are so mistaken about Islam. The author once refuted the western world's accusations of "belligerence" and "intolerance" towards Islam in another paper, "clearing the fog of western hegemony discourse to explore the truth of Islam", and clarified the spirit of tolerance of Islam, which is no longer involved here. What the author wants to expound here is that among the three major monotheism in the world, Islam is a completely and completely monotheistic religion. It is precisely because of its completely monotheistic nature, monotheistic vision and perspective that other religions are included in its own possession. It needs to be pointed out that the author is not a Muslim and does not believe in Islam. Therefore, such an argument is not derived from the author's sense of belonging, but from the author's knowledge and understanding of Islam in his long-term studies on Islam and Iranian literature. It is purely academic.

The Koran says: "many! I have indeed created you from one man and one woman, and I have made you into peoples and clans, so that you may know each other. Therefore, fundamentally, Islam believes that many nations and many religions in the world are the result of god's creation, and that different peoples who believe in different religions should understand and understand each other. The premise of mutual understanding between different believers must be to give up the consciousness of "self-correctness" and to accept "others are also correct" under the premise of "self-correctness". So how do you get believers to accept that others are right? Therefore, to imbue ordinary believers with the spirit of the quran, it will require the interpretation of high schools by religious scientists. In this respect, Masnavi reflects the greatness of the classics, which is a classic. He has a broad vision to explain the identity between different religions.

As an integrator of sufi mysticism, moravin absorbed and carried forward the "illumination theory" of sufi mysticism. The "theory of illumination" was first proposed by suharavati, who believed that god is the absolute ultimate light, and that everything in the world depends on the light of god. The scripture is based on the Koran: "god is the light of heaven and earth, and his light is like a lampstand on which is a lamp... God leads those he desires toward his light." Moravin spends a lot of time on this philosophy of light, which is covered in almost every volume of Masnavi. Moravin believes that the recognition of the absolute existence of Allah by different religions is like the relationship between the seven colors of light and light. The ultimate light is transformed into the red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple light, so that the light has one color on the surface, but is essentially the same. In Masnavi's third volume, "the amazing story of dagouji," dagouji sees seven bright candles on the beach. This is the relationship between one and many. Masnavi volume 4, 416-417, also said, "this is just like the sky which has only one sun, when it shines into families, it becomes a million ways of light. If you tear down all the walls that block the light, you'll find thousands of lines of light blend into one." Therefore, in the relationship between one and many, one is absolute, many is a kind of illusion, is a kind of appearance, is essentially the same. Therefore, it is this unitary nature of Islam that regards other different religions as essentially the same, which provides a theoretical basis for accepting "others are also right" on the premise of upholding "self-correctness". On the basis of this "one and the same" theory, moravin made it clear that religions other than Islam -- Judaism, zoroastrianism, Christianity, even polytheism -- were essentially the same. The sixth book of Masnavi, 1862-1863, says: "blessed by the great man, the jews, the maws, the christians, and the polytheists are all one. In the radiance of that secret sun, a million long and short shadows are all one. Such thinking makes it possible to discard religious prejudice, respect and understanding between different religions.

According to the prophets recognized by different religions, moravius believed that different prophets are the same in essence, because what they obtain is the ultimate light of god. "When a lamp receives the light of a candle, whoever sees the candle will see the candle," said Masnavi, vol. 1, 1947-1950. The differences between the prophets are like the differences of lamps, and the nature of light is without any difference. "The moussa phenomenon will continue until the day of resurrection," Masnavi vol.3 1254-1258 says. The ceramic oil pot and wick are constantly changing, its light is consistent, because it comes from the other shore. Looking in the mirror may create an illusion. If we focus on the light and grasp the essence of things, we can get rid of the limitation of dualism or polytheism. What happened to zoroastrians was that zoroastrians were different from zoroastrians and jews.

Because the limitations of human understanding are caused by the cloaking of the earth, differences are almost coexisting with the world. "Each creation has its own special prayer to which they are unaware of each other," says Masnavi v3 1496. It's because they don't know each other, don't know each other, so they disagree. The same volume 1498 says: "the seventy-two religions in the world are largely the same, but the believers do not know each other, and are full of suspicion." The same volume 1501-1503 says: "the sunni do not understand the prayer of the fatalists, nor do the fatalists know the prayer of the other. Sunnis have their own special prayer rituals, and fatalists pray differently. This faction says that the others are misguided because they are completely ignorant of their religious obligations. It would be almost impossible to dispel such a disagreement, which moravin had a clear understanding of as it were the limitations of the earth itself, until the day of the resurrection. Masnavi vol. 5, 3214 says, "the argument between the fatalists and the will continues until the day of the resurrection." The same volume 3218-3219 says: "do not acknowledge the criticism of the other; You can't reconcile yourself to your opponent's victory. There are seventy-two denominations in the world that will persist until the day of the resurrection. "These 72 sects will argue until the day of judgment, and will not give up their views," says the couplet in book 3221. The same volume, 3227-3228, says: "the two opposing denominations hold their own, and each sect rejoices in its own doctrine. When there is no answer to a heckle, it is a dispute that will not die down until the day of judgment. Thus moravin laments: "the secrets of this age are like a flower and a bull. The spindles of the languages of the nations are wrapped in a hundred colored threads. It is just a matter of a hundred colors and a hundred hearts, when will the world of one color be revealed.

The quran says, "the believers are all teachers, so you should resolve the conflict between them." Therefore, although differences in this earthly world are difficult to eliminate, in the spirit of the Koran, moravin spent much of Masnavi explaining the identity between different religions, aiming to help the majority of believers to raise their awareness and reduce their differences. Moravin also USES stories to illustrate that believers should respect and understand each other, which is an effective way to reduce differences. In the language of the moment, it means "civilized dialogue" to reduce misunderstandings and avoid conflict. The author also summarizes it as the following aspects.

"Even enemies," says Masnavi, vol 2147-2148, "have benefited from kindness, which has turned many enemies into comrades. Even if he is not a friend, there will be less hatred, for kindness is the salve of hatred. Masnavi volume 5, united in the title before 3644, said: "should be like ibrahim khalil treats new strange guests. His door is always open to honored guests. Whether he is a heretic or a believer, a believer or a rebel, all guests are greeted with a smile. In the original book, different guests explain different ideas. If everyone goes to sea with such a broad mind, what differences can't be put aside to seek common ground while reserving differences?

Every man has his own way of seeking Allah, and his goal is the same as that of his heart. You can't just think you're right and everyone else is wrong. In Masnavi's second volume, "musa denies the praise of the shepherds," the shepherds glorify god in crude and unsophisticated language, saying that god should polish his shoes, comb his hair, wash his clothes, eliminate lice, and so on. Musa heard this and scolded the shepherd for blaspheming god. Then god sent an apocalypse to moussa to blame him for the division: "I gave each one a way, I gave each one a different word." "Indians praise in Indian terms, and sind praise in sind terms." "I don't care about people's language, I only care about people's inner states. Although the words on the surface are not humble, if the heart is modest, we should observe the heart. For words are phenomena, the heart is essence, phenomena are derivations, essence is fundamental." It is true that every nation, and every man, has its own way of believing, whatever is right, so long as its heart is in awe of the absolute spirit of the universe.

Third, treat people of different faiths well, respect and understand people of different faiths. Masnavi sixth volume of "named umer buy bread story" about a man named umer, in the city of Iran's card is still can't buy bread, because the owner to his name is umer and I knew he was sunnis, and Iran is city is 10 shia worshippers areas, so the owner let him to a shop to buy bread, and a shop owner also don't sell it to him, let him to buy next. As a result, the man walked through the town without buying any bread. At this point moravy said: "if o 'malley does not look right in the eye, he will say: 'there is no other shop. If the right light were in the hearts of the kazans, omar would be ali. Here, moravin looks at the problem in two ways, pointing out that both buyers and sellers have made the mistake of duality, both seeing one as two. If a customer could look at it correctly, he would assume that there was only one shop, and that he would not be able to buy bread from all over town. If the owners had looked at it correctly, the sunnis and the shiites were essentially the same, and would not have been so divided that they would not have been selling bread to their customers, o 'malley. Masnavi vol 4 407-408 also says, "the faithful have always been an integral whole. There are tens of millions of believers, but there is only one faith. Here, moravin sees all believers as one, with no grounds for mutual discrimination. As the Koran says: "you said: 'we believe god and be sure to our enlightenment, and ibrahim, easy SiMaYi, easy hargreaves, yel solitary and revelation of the tribes, and the general, and, and all the prophets were given in their Lord's classic, for any of them, we do not discriminate against them, we only yield to him." 'so, as long as we understand the essence of identity between different religious believers, the representation of differences can be addressed by way of dialogue among civilizations, give up "only my right, others are wrong" way of thinking, on the basis of "correct", admitted that "others also right", mutual understanding and respect each other, and complement each other, take strong for the weak. As Mr. Fei xiaotong advocates: each beauty of its beauty, beauty of beauty, united with the United States, the world.

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