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北美作业代写:The relationship between ancient Greek philosophy and mythology

2018-08-04 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The relationship between ancient Greek philosophy and mythology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了古希腊哲学与神话的关系。古希腊最开始用传统的神话作为思考的基础,之后在理性和知识的光照下,古希腊哲学家对神的地位和本性进行了重新解释,进而瓦解了神的地位,用理性神代替了神话神。古希腊哲学发展到后期,新柏拉图主义宣告上帝是万物源泉和归宿,神超越了理性,成为一个神秘本体,整个过程也呈现了理性对神性的斗争与循环。

ancient Greek philosophy,古希腊哲学,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Human thought often begins to evolve from simple mythological thinking and then develops into various rigorous and complex systems. The development of ancient Greek philosophy provides such an example. At the beginning, it used traditional myths as the basis for thinking. Later, under the light of reason and knowledge, ancient Greek philosophers reinterpreted the status and nature of god, and then disintegrated the status of god. In the later period of the development of ancient Greek philosophy, neo-platonism declared that god was the source and destination of all things. God transcended reason and became a mysterious entity "unknowable" and "unspeakable". The whole process presents the struggle and cycle of reason against divinity.

Human thought often begins to evolve from simple mythological thinking and then develops into various rigorous and complex systems. From the relationship between the two, it is helpful to clarify the development of philosophy and explore the dialectical unity between rationality and divinity.

Philosophy originates from myth: the inheritance of thinking mode

It is an indisputable fact that ancient Greek philosophy originated from the mother of myths. As tilly says in the history of western philosophy, "the divine spectrum, though not a philosophy, is prepared for philosophy. The germ of philosophical thought has already appeared in the concept of myth, the desire to explain something. On the one hand, ancient Greek mythology has revealed the spirit of thinking and criticism, which contains the exploration and thirst for wisdom and knowledge, which has affected the reason why ancient Greek philosophers pay attention to investigating things and the nature of the world. On the other hand, the ancient greeks, while discussing the origin of the gods, also began to try to explain everything on the basis of traditional myths. However, this interpretation was overthrown by the ancient Greek philosophy with the subsequent progress of knowledge and reason, as it merely sought to appeal to the forces and causes of the supernatural, to satisfy the poets' imagination and popular myths.

First of all, the spirit of "love wisdom", which permeates the myth, worships knowledge and explores the mysteries of nature and human nature, influencing ancient Greek philosophers to pay attention to the reasons of things and think about the nature of the world. The fairy tale contains a deep interest in and love for knowledge. The goddess of wisdom imparts such techniques as weaving, carving and pottery making to human beings. Oedipus was wise enough to solve the sphinx mystery In particular, the ancient Greek myths 'consideration of destiny and destiny, as well as the existence in the dark, indicates the focus of myths on exploring the internal laws and inevitability of things. This spirit of seeking knowledge and loving wisdom was also transmitted to the ancient Greek philosophers, which aroused their desire to explore the universe and the origin of the world.

Secondly, ancient Greek philosophy inherited the direction of myth exploring the origin of the world. The ancient greeks pressed on the origin of god in their discourse on myths and tried to explain everything on the basis of traditional myths. In addition, ancient Greek mythology even sought a unique source in all things -- the origin. The gods of the sea as described in the creation myth, such as ocerno, night, time, etc., are regarded as "gods" as the origin of the world.

The ancient Greek philosophy started from discussing the origin of everything in the world, the origin and evolution of the universe and other so-called natural philosophy problems, and has always been around this problem. This is the basic clue of the development of ancient Greek philosophy which is recognized by both Chinese and foreign scholars. Thales, the first Greek philosopher, came up with the idea that "the origin of all things is water" from the creation legend of the god of the sea and the god of water. This is demonstrated by Aristotle: "the same is true of nature for those who lived long, long ago, and who first thought of the things of god, because they regarded ocherano and tethys as the ancestors of creation, and the testimony of the gods by oath was also water."

However, although ancient Greek mythology tries to explain the origin of everything, these expressions can only "satisfy the poetic image, not the rational requirement of reasoning." Therefore, with the progress of knowledge and rationality, ancient Greek philosophy used more scientific and rigorous logical thinking to push the mythological world down and reinterpret everything in the world with reason.

The ancient Greek philosophy succeeded the myth to continue to explore the world and explain everything, but it took clearer knowledge and reason as the principle of explanation, and empirical facts as the basis of exploration and reconciliation, weakening the status of god. Philosophy's rejection of theology can be generally expressed in the following aspects.

On the one hand, the progress of natural science prompted the ancient Greek philosophers to change the way they perceived the world. It is well known that knowledge leads to reason, and reason drives out divinity -- as knowledge and reason advance, the ancient Greek philosophers gradually disintegrate people's reverence for the gods by explaining how nature works and how celestial bodies operate. "Philosophy itself is basically the product of the subversion of myth," says buchhardt. But what was important for Athens at the time was the loss of all 'reverence for the gods' in daily life as a result of the emergence of new ways of explaining nature, especially the phenomena of celestial bodies.

Advances in natural science have prompted philosophers to use new laws of nature to solve puzzles and rediscover the material foundations that make up the world. To a certain extent, these philosophers adhered to materialism and atheism, and strictly examined the system of Olympian gods in ancient Greek mythology with the laws of natural law. For example, the ancient Greek philosopher empedocles proposed four qualitative elements -- earth, air, fire and water -- as the "root of all things". He believed that when these elements were combined, they formed objects, and when they were decomposed, the objects dispersed. All of these elements combine -- they break down, they cycle. The atomist anaxagora posits that there are infinitely small molecules of matter, and that the world is the result of the mixing and separation of the molecules that make up the material.

On the other hand, ancient Greek philosophers made new interpretations on the status and nature of god with new philosophical principles. God is no longer a concrete, personified fixed image, but a variety of unpredictable, unsearchable existence. The ancient greeks discovered through observation that all kinds of entities can become other entities, just like water can become steam and wood can become ashes. Therefore, the ancient Greek philosophers began to pay attention to the characteristics of the changes of everything and changed the image of gods. Anaximander believed that the essence of everything is infinite, is an eternal entity. Anaximini, on the other hand, argues that everything comes from air. "the original matrix of things, or the underlying entity, is too one and infinite, but it is not ambiguous: it is air, steam or fog." Another philosopher, Heraclitus, argued that the original matrix was a flowing, eternal fire.

It can be seen that the rejection of theology in ancient Greek philosophy is manifested in one point: the denial of entities. Water, fire, gas, and so on are all expressions of an ever-changing, transforming substrate. Heraclitus' "logos" theory is obviously the ultimate expression of this theory. "The only constant or constant in all change and contradiction is the law behind all movement, change and opposition, the reason in all things." Logos governs all things, but it is in all things. The ancient Greek philosophy took away the imagery and concreteness of the mythological gods, which was equivalent to dissolving the basis of the worship and belief of the gods. Although ancient Greek philosophy rejected theology from the very beginning with clearer knowledge and reason as the principle of interpretation, and empirical facts as the basis for exploring and reconciling theories, the new god was quietly established in the period of Socrates.

The skepticism and rejection of the Olympian gods by pre-socratic philosophers marked a temporary triumph of knowledge and reason. But in the time of Athens, when the status of the old gods was gradually disintegrated, philosophers such as Socrates and Plato began to construct a new rational god. In the struggle of reason to expel myth, the mythological god was replaced by the rational god.

As a result of the agonising thought of absolute value by the ancient Greek philosophers, god remained a supernatural being above the individual, except that he was no longer a god under the system of the Olympian gods. The ancient Greek philosophers reformed the gods and gave them new faces and essence. The process of renewal began with Socrates introducing the new god, Damon, who was actually a communicator between god and man. The previous "oracle" was replaced by an opportunity, and the human rational spirit was revealed. Another philosopher, Plato, proposed the category "idea", which marked the good "idea" as the supreme ruler of the world, as well as the ruler of the good soul, whom Plato called god. Aristotle also proposed an "immovable first mover," the original mover being god. Here, among the three great representatives of ancient Greek philosophy, the mythological god gave way to another new god, and this new god could only be grasped by reason.

There is no lack of thought for god in Socrates's debates with his disciples. In the osiflo, Socrates asks osiflo: what is piety and ungodliness? What is the basis of all piety? Osiflo replied, that whatever pleases god is godly, and that which cannot please god is ungodly. Socrates was not satisfied with this answer. One of his answers was: things are religious, so they are loved by god, not the other way around. Here, "piety" became the "type" above god, which later developed from Plato to the "phase" theory. The "phase" or "form" as something above god can achieve absolute perfection.

Socrates introduced the new god "the machine", god will be directly restored to human reason. As for inspiration, Socrates puts it in the defense: "in the past, the inspiration always gave me frequent warnings, and even in some small things, often stopped me from doing things in an improper way." It may seem that there is no difference between an oracle and a hearsay, but it does not come into play until Socrates himself has finished thinking and is willing to make the wrong choice. This shows that the opportunity is sufficient for Socrates to use his reason. The machine does not command people in the form of oracle, but in the mind of the individual to feel the existence of the gods.

Plato, another representative of ancient Greek philosophy, took a big step towards the unification of god and reason. He implies in the Othello that god is guided by form, and in the phaedrus he makes it clear: "only the mind, the helmsman of the soul, can see it, and all true knowledge is knowledge of it. So even the spirit of god is nourished by reason and knowledge. This means that Plato believes that god is not the highest, and that what is above god is reason and knowledge. From Plato's point of view, it is the common goal of man and god to make full use of reason to enter the world of "phase".

In addition, Plato says in the book of timaeus, "when the creator looks with his eyes upon the eternal self, and USES it as a model to construct the form and nature of things, the works thus completed must be perfect." "The universe is created in such a way that reason and the mind can hold it, and it must remain the same." Therefore, Plato believes that the creation of the universe is led by reason, which creates perfect things.

Aristotle further deified this pursuit of reason. In Aristotle's view, everything is in the movement from the existence of potential to the existence of reality, everything is moved by other things, and then other things move. He affirms the existence of a first mover, "the original nature of the existence is not moved either by itself or by its duality, but only by a single, permanent initial motion." This eternal thing, as the ultimate good, is the aim of all things, that makes all things follow themselves and move on, and at the same time, as the object of thought, the purpose of reason.

Under the guidance of three ancient Greek philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the rational god succeeded in replacing the mythological god to the peak. In this period, god has shed the concrete image and become the existence of all things in the universe that can only be grasped by reason. However, the deification of reason also caused people to doubt the ability to know god, which gradually led to a nihilistic trap in the development of late Greek philosophy.

After the system of Plato and Aristotle, ancient Greek philosophy was divided into different schools of philosophy: epicureans regarded the world as a machine; Skepticism exhorts people to abandon all attempts to understand the universe; The stoics believed that people should obey the will of the universe. However, their theoretical achievements cannot make people surrender to the universal will and eradicate the desire to know god. During this period, "the alienation of feeling from god, the desire for higher revelation, was characteristic of the last centuries of the old world." This attitude led to the birth of philosophy with strong religious mysticism. The ancient Greek philosophy originated from theology and finally came down to theology.

Neo-platonism, one of the four great schools of late Greek philosophy, pushed god to extremes. It absorbs Plato's system as the construction of the general theology, where god is regarded as the source and destination of all things, from whom all things come and return to him. God even transcends reason and becomes a mysterious, unspeakable entity.

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