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北美作业代写:American political studies

2018-08-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- American political studies,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国政治研究。美国政治是美国政治学一级学科中的二级学科,是美国学界关于美国政治的研究。美国政治研究不仅受到理论范式的影响,更受到社会科学方法论潮流的强力推动,在不同历史时期,社会科学方法论的潮流都会在美国政治研究领域留下深深的印痕。

American political,美国政治研究,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

American politics is a second-level discipline in the first level of American politics. According to different definitions of the nature of American politics, the studies on American politics in American academic circles have formed five mainstream research models, including regionalism, class conflict, pluralism, elitism and consensusism. At the same time, the research on American politics in American academic circles has been deeply influenced by the development of social methodology. In history, the studies on American politics in American academic circles have been influenced by the German school of state, the behaviorist revolution, the theory of rational choice, and the revolution of new institutionalism respectively.

In American universities, American politics, together with comparative politics, international relations and political theory, is a secondary discipline of political science. Since the second world war, the United States has raised the behaviorism, rational choice in politics and the new institutionalism in political science, such as a few orgasms, research on American politics in the academic circle has proliferation voluminous, fill, American politics became the most perfect political science development, the most profitable and the team's biggest subject. Political theory, comparative politics and international relations have not been able to get rid of the influence of American political research, either by focusing on the study of American political system or taking American politics as a reference. Therefore, the study on American politics is the only way to grasp the academic direction of American political science and understand other subdisciplines.

In the academic world, in order to better understand and interpret the logic of American politics, some complex situations are usually classified and combined, which can be summarized as identifiable theoretical models to gather consensus of the academic community and focus on some aspect or field of the political system. This methodology is often referred to as the research paradigm or research path.

From the perspective of the path of regionalism, the growth history of American politics is also a development history of regionalism. Until the civil war, regionalism still had great explanatory power for American politics. The United States was born out of 13 colonies in the northeast, and the constitution passed in 1797 was the result of bargaining between the north and the south. With the development of the western colonies, the regional conflict structure of the United States has changed a lot, which is manifested as the contradiction between the northeast, the south and the west. The northeast is bounded by the mason - Dixon line, including Pennsylvania and New England. The south includes Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. The western states include Ohio, indiana, Illinois and the western states of the great lakes region. The conflict pattern between the three regions is mainly manifested in the struggle between the northeast and the south for the power range in the west, while the west becomes the "balancer" of the other two regions. Before the civil war, American regional politics could be explained by this model.

Since the 20th century, the rapid development of the southern and western emerging economies and the large increase in population have changed the political landscape of the United States. Owing to the rise in the cost of production and equipment manufacturing in the north old reason lost competitiveness, such as cars, steel, electronics and other heavy industry south, south and west of the petroleum chemical industry, food processing, precision instruments, aerospace and other high-tech industry development of science and technology rapidly, "sun belt" and the contradiction between "Yankee", become the United States as a clue to the regional politics. However, with the development of transportation and communications technology and the increasing trend of political nationalization in the United States after its involvement in the world, the influence of regionalism has declined. Especially with the emergence of the great depression and crisis, conflicts within local interests are on the rise, dissolving the political identity bonds that unite the people of the region. The interpretive power of regionalism to American politics is declining. Nevertheless, regionalism still plays a key role in the study of presidential election.

With the decline of regionalism in American politics, the theory of class division becomes more important. Although the United States does not have the soil for the development of socialism, class conflict analysis is also a paradigm to study American politics. This theory emphasizes the importance of economic interests and regards the social class structure as a decisive factor in American politics. It believes that political loyalty is essentially a social class issue.

Vernon par-rington, Charles A.Beard and others are the representatives of this theoretical path in American academia. The beginning of the 20th century, progressives Vernon palmer Arlington thinks, "from the beginning, we were divided into two big parties, one party is now the nobleman's party, the other party is a political party that civilians. One party insists on restricting and restricting the power of the public and making the government controlled by a small number of people in order to seek special interests. The other seeks to expand the power of the public to make government more representative of the majority and to promote democratic ideals than republican ideals. The basic point of palrington's theory is to emphasize the importance of economic interests first, and then to emphasize the role of American history, which is regarded as the struggle between the minority and the majority, or the game between the good and the bad. As Louis Hartz criticized the progressives, "the progressives have always had an American hero fighting the bad Americans they found, a Jefferson versus every Hamilton." The path of class conflict explains American politics as a struggle between a hero and a villain.

? Charles a. beard is A famous American historian, one of the founders of the United States the history of economics. In the study of the constitution making and the civil war, the paper introduces the analysis path of pursuing privatization of economic interests and economic conflict. The economic view of the American constitution, published in 1913, is his authoritative work on the interpretation of American history by "economic determinism". In the book, beard stresses that the long conflict between industrial groups in the northeast, agricultural groups in the Midwest and plantation owners in the south was the root cause of the civil war. He believed that the constitution was a document made by plantation owners, and that law and ideology were merely products of economic interests. In beard's view, American politics comes down to the roots

The bottom line is determined by economic fundamentals, which can be explained by economic conflicts. Of course, unlike the path of marxism, beard emphasized the economic foundation while denying that politics had a counterforce to the economic foundation.

Beard's ideas had a great influence on American academia. Since the 20th century, political behavior in American politics can be largely explained by the theory of class conflict, in which blue-collar workers vote for Democrats, white collar workers and upper class voters for republicans. This kind of voter structure excites class conflict theorists. Angus Campbell, of course, is skeptical. In the American electorate, he finds that more than a third of Americans are "unaware" of their class status, and that social class awareness among a relatively limited and highly experienced population has an impact on political orientation. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the fact that the class conflict pattern should not be expanded indefinitely. On specific issues, class analysis should be combined with the approaches of regionalism and pluralism for research.

So far, the study of American politics on American politics has been very mature. According to different definitions of the nature of American politics, five mainstream research paradigms including regionalism, class conflict, pluralism, elitism and consensusism have been formed. All of these theories are leading the way in explaining different issues and cannot be replaced by each other. To study American politics, these theoretical paradigms must be combined and adjusted according to the needs of the subjects.

American political research is not only influenced by the theoretical paradigm, but also strongly driven by the trend of social science methodology. In different historical periods, the trend of social science methodology will leave a deep imprint on the American political research field. Before the birth of modern political science in 1880, American political research was restricted by the methodology of continental Europe. It attached great importance to the research methods of human history and American political history and thoughts. At the beginning, American political research focused on historical comparative analysis, realism and legal methods. It focused on examining the static structure of formal laws and systems of the United States from the perspective of comparing the politics of the United States and other countries. However, this kind of grand theory is too broad and has attracted strong criticism and doubts, which has promoted the American political research to the micro theory with behaviorism and rational choice theory as the main content. After the second world war, American political research was deeply influenced by sociological research, focusing on the logic of American political system, political role and its behavior. The confusion encountered by behaviorist politics in the 1960s inspired another group of scholars to focus on rational choice theory. Based on economic methodology, they focused on studying the models of American politics and conducted reasoning and verification. Since the 1980 s, with the development of the academia discontent of rational choice theory, the political research began to take a rational choice institutionalism, historical institutionalism and sociological institutionalism as the main content of the new institutionalism in political science research Angle of view, tries to combine the split of the grand theory and micro theory and implementation of the reconstruction of the political science. Of course, the new institutional politics pays too much attention to the research preference of structure, system and behavior, which has triggered criticism from the school of ideas, which values the political significance of social culture and informal practices, traditions and social norms, and distinguishes itself from the study of American politics in the new institutional politics. At present, in the research field of American political development, the most important debate is between the historical institutionalism and the school of ideas. Idealists seek to understand how norms, practices and cultural visions influence political debate and its outcomes. Although there are deep differences between the two schools in basic concepts, positions and methods, both of them have contributed a lot to the study of American political development. How to combine the advantages of the two schools is an expectation of future American political research.

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