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作业代写:Modern European military system reform

2018-07-19 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Modern European military system reform,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了欧洲近代军事制度改革。在早期的欧洲奴隶制国家,公民兵制是最早的正式的军事制度,它建立在欧洲农村公社基础上的兵役制度。为提高部队的作战能力,士兵必须接受严格的训练。后来面对村社土地制度解体所带来的兵源枯竭现象,欧洲各国君主和大臣们不得不尽快寻求新的征兵办法,于是产生了骑士制度。骑士制度是一种特殊兵役制度,它以采邑分封制为经济基础,封君之所以赐地给封臣,是以他服军役为条件的、为前提的。

military system,欧洲近代军事制度,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

The Renaissance movement is a thought liberation movement, the western world it in a brand-new spiritual power and world view, to show the positive enterprising spirit, creative spirit and scientific spirit. Similarly, the military structure in the early modern Western Europe was also greatly influenced by humanism, and its basic idea of fighting for the country has been passed down to today.

In the early modern period, Europe experienced a large-scale and profound military system reform. The academic circle has little discussion on the change of military system, so long as I base on the discussion of its humanism spirit.

During the clan commune period, in order to unify the command and action of the tribal alliance, it was necessary to establish a military leader with great power. Later the gentile system was replaced by the state. The state has become a public power over society. The military, the police, the courts, the prisons and other violent institutions, but the gens own democratic institutions. The earliest countries in human history were slave countries. In the early European slave states, civil service was the first formal military system, which was based on the European rural commune. In order to improve the operational capability of the army, Roman soldiers must receive strict training. Later, faced with the depletion of military resources caused by the collapse of the village land system, European monarchs and ministers had to find new recruitment methods as soon as possible, and the chivalry system was born.

During the formation of the feudal system in Western Europe, the chivalry system is a special military service system which is not only related to the civil military system but also very different from the civil military system. It is based on the economic basis of the fiefdoms system. The reason why the Lord gave the land to the minister is that he served in the army as the prerequisite. In order to strengthen the connection with the feudal aristocracy, the king obtained a stable military source, so that the land was divided into the nobles under the condition of military service, thus forming the feudal military nobility group. The knightage aristocrat was a feudal military aristocrat with a career in war. The aristocrat in the early feudal period was a more sophisticated warrior, a professional warrior. At this time, the army can be seen as a private army. The feudal Lord divided his land between a private soldier and a professional warrior. This kind of land is a tenancy with a salary. The 14th-century Saxony commentary defines the name as "Lehn is the payment to knights." Eight century at the beginning of ninth century, fief packet in frank, the closure of large, medium and small nobles to serve in the army for riding for sealing the Lord's return, the knight can use a spear as a weapon to kill the enemy. Knights began to dominate the battlefield. A knight must be brave in battle, not less so than his fellow men, or he will be looked down upon by his own companions. As a vassal to the Lord, the knight must protect the Lord and his family, and protect his honor, territory and property. Another knight is also known as the protector of god in Christ, as Charlie ? matt had converted to Christianity, therefore, the knight must be a Christian, Christians are not accepted for the knight.

With the development of urban social economy and the continuous progress of production technology, capitalism has begun to sprout, the monetary economy has been greatly developed, and the demand for war has been continuously improved. The development of the money economy also made it easier for the rulers to build large armies.

From civilians as the main body of the infantry, due to the equipment the cost of a single infantry knights are much cheaper than the equipment, so the infantry to replace the feudal lords knight to become the master of the battlefield, civilians can through their own efforts to get a promotion at the same time, broke the traditional aristocratic monopoly officer, at the same time as the influence of the civilian military rise, its status in the political and social are greatly improved. Feudal rulers and their Kings were able to maintain their royal rule by establishing a large number of mercenaries and a strong standing army. The revolution of firearms against cold weapons in the early 15th century marked that the war had entered a technical stage, and the heroic individuals could not defeat the mechanical technology. Whoever can use superior weapons is a more formidable enemy, and his social status and courage do not matter. The use of gunpowder made all men equal in height and democratized war. As a result of the military revolution, by the 16th century, the system of chivalry, as a military system, gradually disappeared because it was useless. But there was one branch of the army, the cavalry. The foot soldiers were not monopolized by the aristocracy like the feudal knights, but were recruited from all walks of life. Revolution in the 14th century cavalry infantry, therefore, not only expanded the social source of soldiers, also reduce the cost of a single soldier equipment, for the expansion of early modern European armies laid the foundation.

Feudal forces no longer exists, the new army start by a large number of mercenaries programming, because the collapse of the feudal system makes mercenaries who have to pay the service of freedom, the result is a kind of similar standing army troops. The appearance of mercenary system broke the monopoly of knights on military power. Mercenaries became the main military force in the country and broke the tradition of knights monopolizing military power. Engels keen to point out the advantage of this change: "regular enlist recruits and soldiers as professional mercenaries, obviously than the occasional enlist recruits the mob and feudal servants higher" mercenaries to become a specialized profession, in war, blackmail captured a ransom of more profitable than kill the employer's enemies. War is their profession, and it is clearly better for them to delay a war than to end it. In European countries, mercenaries are used for war, and mercenaries are paid for their services. Every mercenary captain tries to postpone the war, because it is every mercenary's dream to take money and not fight. It's hard to really kill someone unless the pay is really high. Mercenary captains are reluctant to kill too many of their enemies, because as captives, they can earn a ransom or be employed by their own armies, and there is nothing to be gained by killing them. At the same time, mercenary captains have no interest in decisive battles and annihilation, for there is no war, no enemy, no livelihood. Clausewitz believes that this is not determined by the causes of war itself, but by external causes such as social conditions. The middle ages, large and small, are in the feudal monarchy army for war, the army is made from the feudal dependency associated with each parts, contact their ties, half is a statutory obligation, half is a voluntary alliance, the whole army is a great confederate body. Machiavelli railed against the evils of mercenaries, citing historical examples of monarchs who failed to fight with mercenaries. Even France, strengthened by mercenaries, was not impressed. He thinks that mercenaries are unfaithful, unreliable, and mercenaries who only want money. He thinks the sovereign should have his own army, which is an army of subjects or citizens, or other people you recruit. A new type of army was therefore necessary to replace mercenaries.

Gunpowder and its firearms, with their profound political and military significance, have changed the balance of power between society and its various groups. It changed the whole of Europe and had a complex impact on the interaction between countries. The first real military revolution in the history of mankind took place in Europe from the second half of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. It was created by the Dutch militarist moritz, king gustav ii of Sweden, and finally completed. In addition to the standing army, the kingdom also recruited a large number of mercenaries. The Swedish king gustav ? human-being's of most land of 185000 people, but a large part of mercenaries. At that time, Europe was in the period of the dissolution of feudalism and the rise of capitalism. In keeping with this, great changes have taken place in the military field as well: musketeer guns have replaced spear swords, announcing the arrival of the era of firearms.

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