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北美作业代写:Chinese and western attitudes towards face differ

2018-07-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Chinese and western attitudes towards face differ,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中西方面子观差异。在跨文化交际中,面子是十分重要的部分,而不同的国家有着不同的面子观。中国的面子文化由来已久,面子在礼貌中是很重要的一部分。在日常交际中,中国人通常会用自己的面子挽回他人的面子。因此,中国人的思维方式更倾向于集体主义。对于西方人而言,在日常交际中西方人也会考虑到别人的面子。当你陷入困境后,他们会十分关心你,并尽他们所能帮助你度过困难,所以西方人也有很多方式来挽回他们的面子。

save face,中西方面子观,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

With the development of world economy and culture, people all over the world are closely connected. As a result of the integration of the world economy, transnational corporations exist all over the world. The employees of these companies have different cultural backgrounds, which leads to cross-cultural communication. When Chinese communicate with westerners, westerners feel uncomfortable when talking about personal matters, which threatens their face. Only when we encounter this situation will we realize the importance of "face" and some intercultural communication skills.

There is no faceless communication in the world. No matter in China or western countries, we need face in our daily communication, and we will do our best to maintain it. Chinese people are mostly modest, they are friendly to others to protect their face. However, in western communication, they usually point out other people's mistakes in public places and try to save face by telling jokes. They think it is an effective way to maintain face.

It is necessary to understand the concept of face and the skills of intercultural communication. In 1944, hu xianjin, a Chinese anthropologist, proposed her concept of face, which she believed represented social status. Chinese people usually maintain face by strengthening their reputation in public. For example, when a Chinese businessman suddenly goes bankrupt, he will feel frustrated and unwilling to show his face, thinking that he has no face. However, American sociologist goffman thinks that face is the positive social value that people obtain through social communication, and it is only a personal expression.

Successful cross-cultural communication is becoming more and more important in management. Unsuccessful communication may bring conflicts. In cross-cultural communication, face is a very important part, but different countries have different views on face. If we want to communicate with people successfully, it is very necessary to understand the concept of face in different countries. Therefore, "face" cannot be ignored in communication, and it is very necessary to analyze the "face view" of different countries in cross-cultural communication.

This paper will analyze Chinese and western views on face from politeness, the way of saving face and the way of thinking. Before we analyze these three parts, we must first understand what the concept of face is.

China's face culture has a long history. Influenced by Chinese culture, Chinese people have their own understanding of their own face, and they advocate modesty and harmony. Politeness is a symbol of human civilization, a tool to maintain human harmony, and a common phenomenon in all social groups. Everyone wants to make others aware of what he has done, which is what people call face. Therefore, face is an important part of politeness, and different countries have different face theories, knowing that these differences are very helpful to successful cross-cultural communication. Politeness is a necessary quality for Chinese people. They think that if people treat others with courtesy, they will also be respected by others. Chinese people likes to care for others, in our daily life and even their families, because they think it can maintain their face, in Chinese culture, politeness and face inseparable.

In daily communication, Chinese people usually use their own face to save others' face. The Chinese maintain a positive face, be it relatives or friends. First of all, Chinese people will redeem themselves by apologizing. Secondly, the Chinese people will protect the face of both sides through honorific language. However, if we say something that threatens the face of others, we will choose the words of praise to save face and then point out their problems. When it comes to strangers, Chinese people praise him as a sign of respect. Chinese people are modest, but if someone threatens their face, they will make them lose face and save their face.

Influenced by China's 5,000-year-old culture, Chinese people have developed a way of thinking for others. Traditional Chinese culture emphasizes the unity of man and nature and the harmonious relationship between man and man. They consider the union of man and nature to be the highest. Ancient philosophers believed that the world was a whole and indivisible. Therefore, the Chinese way of thinking is more inclined to collectivism. At the same time, the Chinese way of thinking is more implicit. For example, teachers in China praise their children before pointing out their shortcomings when meeting their parents, which they believe can not only maintain the face of parents and students, but also point out the key points. Chinese people attach great importance to others' feelings, so they are always protecting others' face. Because of the collectivist way of thinking, Chinese people often praise others. Under the influence of Chinese traditional culture, Chinese people have formed the habit of keeping face, and they will do their best to maintain face. Because they believe in god and believe in themselves, they don't try to hurt others in order to have a harmonious relationship.

For westerners, they never go to meddle in other people's choices and decisions, in the same way, they don't like to be involved in their private affairs, they believe that respect the privacy of others is a kind of the embodiment of politeness. From the western point of view, individualism is very important. Unlike Chinese culture, words like "be careful" can make them feel uncomfortable and make them lose face. Westerners show respect by giving you enough space to avoid inconveniences.

Westerners also consider other people's face in their daily communication. At the same time, to avoid losing face, they are independent and free. First of all, in western countries, they will call someone by their first name, except on formal occasions. If they make a mistake, they will also apologize directly. In formal and informal situations, after a formal introduction, they usually say, "if you can, just call me Tom." Secondly, they will be very direct to their relatives or friends, and will point out their mistakes directly. But sometimes, westerners also use implicit ways to save face, such as using implicit language or vague language. They also think jokes can be used to create a happy atmosphere to save face. Moreover, when you perform well, they will not hesitate to praise your words to protect your face. When you're in trouble, they'll take care of you and do everything they can to help you through it. So we can see that westerners also have many ways to save their face.

Influenced by western culture, westerners are rigorous and rational. Their way of thinking can be divided into three parts: analytical thinking, logical thinking and opposite thinking.

Westerners are good at finding problems and solving problems. They try to start with parts and think about the whole. From special to universal, this is analytical thinking. In the eyes of westerners, individualism and independence are the key to solving problems. So they don't like other people interfering, they think it's impolite to interfere in their personal affairs, whether it's formal or informal.

Westerners are also good at logical analysis, which we call abstract thinking. They are good at using abstract thinking to describe concrete affairs. Before making a decision, they often consider the pros and cons for a long time. Therefore, when solving problems, they are rigorous and rational, and will use their logical thinking to solve problems, while negative face is also important to them.

In ancient times, westerners divided the universe into two parts: god and man. According to the original sin, they tried to conquer nature. They believed that everything in the universe has two opposite sides. Therefore, although the separation from thinking mode makes them prefer the separation of thinking mode. So unlike Chinese people, when communicating with others, they pay more attention to individualism and protect their negative face.

Face is a ubiquitous social phenomenon. To explore face in different cultural contexts can help us avoid conflicts in communication. It can also deepen our understanding of each other. The concept of face is closely related to social relations and culture. The Chinese concept of face reflects collectivist values, while the western concept of face reflects individualistic values. Different manners of politeness reflect different cultures. It is very important to master the concept of face in communication. Therefore, we should not ignore the face-saving expressions in communication. As a foreign language learner, we should not only learn language knowledge, but also pay attention to cultural knowledge, so that we can communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds without hindrance. By mastering cultural knowledge, we can not only maintain the face of ourselves and others, but also communicate without conflict. Due to the different view of face, it reflects the different social relations, culture and way of thinking between China and western countries. Therefore, it is necessary to study the different views of face between China and the west, which can provide a guideline for the communication between China and the west in the future.

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