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北美作业代写:The project cost

2018-03-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The project cost,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了工程造价。工程造价关乎投资方和施工单位的切身利益,如何提高工程造价管理的质量和水平,关乎双方利益。做好工程造价的管理方案有助于合理规划工程中的人力、物力消耗。但是如今的工程造价现状并不理想,存在着种种问题,包括计算方法和实际情况有差异、科学管理方案受阻碍以及工程造价意识不强等。要想解决这些问题,首先要明确工程造价中失控的因素,结合实际情况,及时进行工程项目的调整。并且还要对工程造价的不同阶段采取不同的管理措施,保证每一个阶段顺利进行,规范工程造价的方案。

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The project cost relates to the vital interests of the investors and the construction units, how to improve the quality and level of the project cost management, which is related to the interests of both parties. The management plan of the project cost can help the manpower and material consumption in the project. But the current situation is not ideal engineering cost, there are all sorts of problems, including the calculation method and there are differences between the actual situation, scientific management scheme was blocked, and the project cost consciousness is not strong, etc., these problems need to take relevant measures to solve.

Through the correct reasonable calculation method on the basis of the quota is a important part of the project cost management, but our country present stage of project management cost calculation method and actual situation has a certain difference. At present, China mainly applies two kinds of construction budget calculation method, one is the physical method and the other is the real amount method. The physical method is mainly based on the construction drawings obtained by the professional staff, combined with the actual construction quantity, the personnel and material resources used in the construction process are evaluated systematically, and the quantity of works is calculated. Physical amount is in physical method, on the basis of the precise calculation and analysis of the data again, the main method is recorded by the physical method of manpower and material resources consumption, combined with the economic situation of the construction area, construction area of material price, labor cost, the cost of manpower and material resources multiplied by the corresponding Labour cost, material price, it is concluded that the construction budget. Both of these methods have advantages and disadvantages, and the results are different from the actual situation. The budget is divided into the project cost budget and the construction price budget. Different calculation methods will get different budget results, and the control costs should be analyzed through the comparison between them.

Project cost is a series of work, different work stage needs to adopt different corresponding plan. However, due to the hindrance of traditional thought, many scientific management schemes can not be widely realized. Generally received the influence of the various stages of engineering cost, the influence of the decision-making phase of the project cost is one of the biggest, so scientific management scheme for decision-making phase is particularly important, need to determine the completeness of science of management. The main problem is before investing in our country at present stage can't be detailed and objective analysis, information collection is not comprehensive, easily affected by personal thoughts, staff personal work quality is not strong, there are very few staff carefully understand the characteristics of the global economy and our country's economy, the decision to the tail from wagging the dog. In addition to the construction stage, the main feature of the construction stage is that there are many influencing factors. Since the construction period is the longest, there will be various fluctuations in the economy during this long period, especially the price of materials, which fluctuates greatly. In traditional thinking, the management plan should not be changed greatly, but in fact, there are many management solutions that have strong timeliness and need to put forward untimely management plan.

Project cost concerns the vital interests of the investors and construction units, both investors and construction units often produce dispute on engineering cost, at the end of the day, or lack of engineering cost consciousness at the present stage in our country. There are four types of project cost awareness that require investors and construction workers to pay high attention to, namely, individual pricing awareness, competitive pricing awareness, legal pricing awareness, and pricing awareness in accordance with the law. In terms of individual consciousness is particularly important in the interests of both parties, but our country has always been the traditional engineering as a kind of mission is not a commodity, the influence of traditional ideas make settlement problems, construction units to different engineering settlement without complete sets, not objective effectively reflect different engineering properties accordingly. In terms of competition consciousness appeared earlier in our country, but the development of construction cost, the principle of our country is still in use quota competition, between the construction unit has on the table, at the same time also with the more under the mesa of black-box operation. The operation of the construction unit is the embodiment of the lack of competitive pricing consciousness, so that the bid of the super standard has lost its due meaning, and the factors that should exist in the competition cannot give the investors a comprehensive understanding.

There are many factors that can spin out of control of project cost, investors want to gain more benefits and construction unit, must be combined with the actual situation, clear the control factors of the project cost to adopt scientific solutions in a timely manner. The first is cost control, the time required for construction is very long. In this long construction period, the changes of international economy and domestic economy are in indefinite time direction. Every economic fluctuation causes a change in the cost of labor and material costs. Timely and accurate cost control plays an important role in this situation. The most direct and important two items of cost control are labor cost control and material cost control. The labor cost is affected by time and region, so it needs to control expenditure and adopt real-name system. The work tasks in the construction process must be carried out to everyone, and the influence of various uncontrollable factors in the construction process should be considered, and the appropriate remuneration of the staff shall be given to ensure the quality of work. Material costs are mainly affected by the acquisition process. In the process of obtaining the material, the source of the material is different, the quality price is different, the use of the operator is much, and the processing cost is severely regulated by the market. It is necessary to choose reasonable procurement methods, compare the quality of raw materials in different regions, and take into account the transportation costs of raw materials in different regions as well as the consumption loss in the transportation process, and rationally choose the source of procurement.

Every stage of the project cost should standardize management mechanism, from the decision-making stage, construction stage, bidding and tendering stage to the last stage of the completion of the management, should be to ensure that the audit is strictly forbidden, follow the process of system. The most important thing in the decision-making process is to ensure the correctness of the content. The decision-making content is the foundation of the project cost, which indirectly affects the construction, bidding and auditing of the construction cost, which must be paid attention to. To do this need to increase staff's work quality, ensure that every member of the team work can reasonable analysis, from the general situation in a timely manner to understand the international and domestic economic situation, has the ability to expand the objective investigation before decision, not by its own factors. Construction stage is the concentration stage of investment, it is the stage of product formation. This stage takes a long time and is obviously influenced by different factors. This requires the audit unit to carefully check the budget and make unreasonable plans in the budget. The management of the construction stage is actually the result of the decision of management once again, we will strictly control the cost of the material, control the quality of the materials, construction units and investors, for a reasonable price.

Reasonable and standard construction cost plan needs to be controlled effectively at all stages. The project cost shall be controlled throughout the whole project as long as the pre-project, the middle period of the project and the cost control of the later stage of the project. The preparation stage of the preliminary design needs the staff to give the corresponding attention. The preparatory phase of the design includes investment decision and construction design, which is related to the basic cost positioning of the whole project. To effective planning scheme of the early stage of the project cost, the enterprise can adopt voting, forecast investment department is divided into several groups, each group of expectations, with low investment cost and high quality standards, a reasonable balance for examination and assessment of the two factors, the choice of objective planning scheme, adopt the best configuration. In the construction stage, it is mainly to the manpower and the material resources strict control. The construction unit cannot pay the laborer due to the labor remuneration is the foundation of the smooth construction, in addition, the labor remuneration needs to match the work content and work quality of the workers. After the completion of the project, it is necessary to strictly examine and verify whether there is any need to rectify the project according to the completion plan and the actual market requirements.

At present, there are many problems in the construction cost of our country, how to solve these problems rationally, and improve the quality of project is an urgent concern. In the practice of constantly running, through past successes and teaching, Chinese enterprises generally summarizes some effective control of engineering cost, must first clear out of control factors in the project cost, combined with the actual situation, in a timely manner the adjustment of the project. Different management measures should be taken at different stages of the project cost to ensure the smooth progress of each stage and to standardize the project cost. The project cost problem is constantly exposed, and the solution also needs the joint efforts of the staff to optimize.

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