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北美作业代写:Western populism

2018-03-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Western populism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西方民粹主义。民粹主义在西方国家的兴起已成为当今世界格局中一种重要的政治现象。当下西方的民粹主义浪潮从两个方面得到彰显。一方面,它通过民粹主义政治的崛起和壮大体现出来。在主流政党之外,欧洲左右翼民粹主义政党纷纷在国内选举中迅速崛起并赢得了较高的支持率。另一方面,它通过种种出人意料的“黑天鹅”事件体现出来。英国脱欧、特朗普当选美国总统等黑天鹅事件接连不断地出现。种种出人意料的“黑天鹅”事件表明民粹主义浪潮大有席卷西方之势。

Western populism,西方民粹主义,cs代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The rise of populism in Western countries has become an important political phenomenon in the current world pattern. The current populist wave in the West has been highlighted in two ways. On the one hand, it manifests itself through the rise and expansion of populist politics. Outside the mainstream political parties, Europe's left-wing populist parties have risen rapidly in domestic elections and won higher support rates. Including the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Austria and other core European countries, a variety of populist parties and the suspected European forces in the election, or become the ruling party, or from the former marginal party to become a major political party, more than in the past to obtain greater political influence. With the British Independence Party, the French National Front, the German Alternative Choice party, the Italian five-Star Movement, the Greek Radical left alliance, Spain we can the party, the Austrian Liberal Party and so on represented by the distinctive populist color party gradually boarded the mainstream political arena, has become the challenge traditional mainstream political party's important strength. For example, in Germany, where the traditional party system is stable, the formerly marginalized German alternative choice party rose rapidly in the parliamentary elections, and the poll support rate continued to rise, which poses serious challenges to mainstream politics. In the United States, the rise of the Tea Party movement, Occupy Wall Street movement, the Democratic Party's "Saunders phenomenon", the Republican "Trump phenomenon", every movement behind is a deep correlation with populism. On the other hand, it is manifested through various unexpected "black swan" events. Black Swan events such as Britain's Marina Le Pent, Trump's election to the U.S. president, the Italian constitutional referendum, and the high support rate of the United Kingdom have been in succession. Before the UK Oupang, almost all the mainstream media and forecasters believed that the SW would eventually win the Oupang vote with a slim 51.9% to 48.1% advantage. In the US presidential election, Trump, who was not initially favored by the major American mainstream media, eventually defeated Hillary, who was seen as a representative of the formed elite. Prime Minister Lenzy was forced to resign after a long-awaited referendum in the Italian constitution was vetoed. Marina Le Pent, a French right-wing populist who held high the anti-immigrant and anti-EU banner, received a 30% approval rating in the presidential election. All sorts of unexpected "black Swan" events show that the tide of populism is sweeping the west. There is no doubt that populism is eroding the Western political landscape in a menacing manner.

In a word, the western political structure seems to have been immersed in the vortex of populism, the strong rise of populism to the future of the western political, economic and social trends has brought enormous uncertainty and high degree of uncertainties, profoundly affecting the Western domestic and international pattern. First of all, the rapid rise of the western populist party has seriously impacted the Western countries ' consensus politics, which poses a great threat to the process of European integration and globalization. Britain's success has inspired various separatist forces in the west, and most of the populist parties in Europe see the EU as an important drag to hinder their development, clearly expressing their intention to withdraw from the EU, the prospects for the European integration process are not optimistic. Secondly, populism poses a great threat to the economic development of the Western countries. The anti-globalization and anti-free trade tendencies of populism are now in the world, leading to the growing trade protectionism in Western countries, closed regional agreements are becoming more and more difficult, and the new liberal economic policies pursued by the Western countries are under increasing pressure. Finally, the risk of being torn apart by the diversity of Western societies. The economic development promoted by elites has attracted more and more hostility, political polarization and social polarization have intensified, and a gradually divided Western world is becoming more and more prominent. As the result of Britain's Oupang vote, the citizens of the whole country are in a state of confrontation, and the political correctness of the social elites cannot agree on the whole society.

The polarization of wealth and the structure of employment caused by economic globalization is the basic factor of the rise of western populism. The economic globalization in today's world is the leading globalization of western developed countries, neo-liberalism is the theoretical basis of Western economic globalization. As a bourgeois economic theory, neo-liberalism advocated absolute liberalization, total privatization and overall marketization in the economy. After the 1990s after the "Washington consensus" was ideologically, with the neo-liberalism by the West in the World wide implementation, it gradually become the leading economic globalization of the important guiding ideology and policy tools. The promotion of neo-liberalism not only brings many harms to the economic security of the developing countries, but also brings negative influence to the western developed countries, the prevalence of the western populism is the fierce response to the polarization of the rich and the poor and the employment structure of neo-liberalism in Western countries.

First of all, neo-liberalism led by globalization has brought huge polarization of rich and poor. On the one hand, the neo-liberalism as the guiding ideology of economic globalization has brought a grand capital feast, promoting the western and even the world's economic development and technological progress. On the other hand, it is a kind of unfair and non-hui globalization, behind this capital carnival is the exploitation and plunder of the financial monopoly capital to the ordinary people of Western countries, which has a strong wealth predatory. Since 2010, the gap between the rich and the poor and the unequal distribution of economic globalization has widened, with 0.1% of the richest people occupying 20% of global wealth, the richest 1% of whom occupy about 50% of global wealth, and the richest 10% of the world's total wealth of about 80%―90 %。 451 in the course of the economic globalization of the last thirty or forty years, 1% of the United States's rich population has occupied most of the wealth of society, and not only that, but also the growth of the population is far more than other social strata. In 2015, the top 5% affluent households in the United States earned 2.2 trillion dollars, 7 times times the income of the lowest 20% bottom-tier households in the United States. With the rapid increase in income inequality, the rise of populism and social unrest in the United States is understandable. In the context of the disparity between the rich and the poor, ordinary people tend to have a strong sense of relative deprivation, and this widening of the relative deprivation will evolve into a resentment and resentment and then vent to occupy a wealth of the elite class, Populism, with its underlying orientation and anti-elitist tendencies, naturally resonates among those who have failed to benefit from globalisation, which has become the most active supporter of populist parties and political figures, with a strong dissatisfaction with their own situation and rich and poor polarization. Trump's victory is inextricably linked to the support of middle-and lower-class whites who have suffered in the course of globalisation, as well as the disintegration of the rich and poor in the back of Britain, with a large number of low-income groups parting with the elite and backing out of the EU. Secondly, the economic globalization led by neo-liberalism brings serious employment structure differentiation. Economic globalization has brought about the deep detachment of fictitious economy and real economy in Western countries, and the direct consequence is the serious imbalance between industrial structure and employment structure. This kind of imbalance manifests itself as the fictitious economy which is represented by the financial service industry is developing rapidly, but the real economy which is represented by the manufacturing industry is shrinking and the industrial workers decline and collapse. Since the 1970s, the western countries, led by the United States, have relocated a large number of low-end manufacturing industries, replacing them with an unprecedented boom in the financial-led service sector, creating a vast array of financial groups and financial institutions. But most people in the financial services industry are social elites, not ordinary people, thus, this kind of fictitious economy expands excessively and the real economy shrinking industrial layout virtually squeezes the job opportunity of the Western ordinary people, has brought about the distortion of employment structure, also formed the situation that the elites benefited more in the globalization and the ordinary people benefited less. , ordinary people are not satisfied with the results of economic globalization. Especially in the international financial crisis and the European sovereign debt crisis of two major crises, the western countries generally have high debt phenomenon, economic recovery is weak, social welfare reduced, unemployment high, ordinary people are invisible to bear huge survival and development pressure. People at this time desperately need a channel to release the insecurity of unemployment crisis and the anxiety of reducing employment opportunities, the emergence of populist political parties and political figures coincides with the expectations of ordinary citizens to increase employment opportunities and social welfare, filling the void in the public's dissatisfaction with reality, Inspire the people to change the status quo enthusiasm. The populist economic proposition is diametrically opposed to neo-liberalism, which opposes liberalization and privatization, advocates state intervention and expands employment and redistribution policies. Trump's claim to relocate manufacturing companies back to the U.S. is to create more jobs in return for popular support. By pursuing an economic proposition that is at odds with neo-liberalism, populist political parties and politicians have given new hope to the people, pandering to their strong demands for redistribution of benefits, and will naturally receive the support of the people.

In a word, the economic globalization led by neo-liberalism has brought the obvious polarization of wealth and employment structure to the western countries, which has deepened the political rift between the elites and the ordinary people, which has provided an important opportunity for the emergence of populist political parties and political figures, and has driven the revival of populist politics. When people no longer believe that neo-liberal economic globalisation can benefit them, it is easy to ignite popular enthusiasm and support once a populist party or political figure offers a new way to replace neoliberalism, protect their interests, and change the circumstances in which they have been deprived. The populist party is on the political stage as an alternative to neo-liberalism.

Political decline is a direct factor in the rise of western populism. Since the end of the Cold War, the western countries, led by the United States, have always been enthusiastic about the output of "democracy", devoting a great deal of resources to spread the western values and ideology, playing the banner of freedom, democracy and human rights and interfering in the affairs of other countries and infiltrating the ideology. However, while the western countries have spared no effort to publicize and promote ideology, they have neglected the construction of the political system within their own country. Blindly immersed in the superiority of their own democratic system and the self-confidence of the country's prosperity and neglect of the political system to improve and upgrade, once by some people mantras of the Western political system is going into decline. This kind of political decline is embodied in the political system is more and more difficult to respond to the people's demands, money and politics can not be eliminated, the government's administrative costs are too high, inefficient governance, social consensus, interest groups, low turnout, the failure of social sharing mechanism, the social internal political differences have increased. Populism always seems to point to some kind of political system, especially the chaos formed by the anomie of western modern political system. A series of populist crises in Europe now seem to be linked to the crisis of representative democracy. Even scholars have pointed out that the strong rise of the European right-wing populism in recent years is a result of the crisis of Western-style democratic traditional system.

First, the Western political elite phenomenon is obvious. In today's western countries, political development is increasingly showing a trend of elitism, mainstream politics is gradually controlled by political elites and various interest groups, and the gap between people and elites is deepening. The deviation between the public opinion represented by the political elites and the true public opinion is a clear example of the political elitism. On a growing number of issues, people find that their elected representatives do not represent them, and the identity of the representatives of the public opinion has become a bargaining chip for the political elite and a profit-free tool. On the issue of Britain's de-Europe, the views of the members of the public and those of the British citizens are quite different, with about 70% of the 650 members of the Congress supporting the EU, and 51.9% of the subsequent referendums opting out of the EU, since members are elected by the public to represent public opinion. So why is there a discrepancy between the two major issues of de-Europe? As a matter of fact, the elected members of the public have moved away from the electorate, and politics is no longer a manifestation of public opinion, but rather a expression of the will of members. The disparity between the results of such a vote and that of the public is a direct reflection of the gap between the true public opinion and the representative public opinion, as well as the fact that politics has been dominated by elites and that the influence of ordinary people on politics is fading.

Second, elections in Western countries are increasingly becoming money games for capital manipulation. On the one hand, capital can determine who can be a candidate. In Western countries, the power of capital has penetrated deeply into the economic, social, cultural and other corners, controlling the financial field which is closely related to people's life. For the capital, in order to safeguard the long-term stability of their own interests, it is necessary to support specific political parties as a spokesman for the interests. As a result, it is usually only a party with capital that has the opportunity and ability to elect a candidate for the interests of the capital, ostensibly though the political party is determining the candidate, but it is the capital in the selection of political parties and candidates. When the candidate is identified, the capital uses the interest groups and the media system it controls to sway the election and pave the way for its chosen candidate. On the other hand, whether a candidate is elected depends largely on the outcome of the game of mutual capital. As we all know, the election process in the West requires a huge amount of human, material and financial resources, and only the capital giants with the ability to provide huge sums of money, small capital consortia simply do not have the capacity to participate in national elections. As a result, the electoral process is monopolized by the capital Giants, and the candidates are no longer talented and level but money. From the whole election process, whether political parties or candidates are always under the intervention and control of capital, the transaction of power and money is completely legal and difficult to eliminate, money politics has become a Western-style democracy can not overcome the soft rib and mishap.

Finally, the mutual veto of political parties leads to inefficient administration. Within the existing political framework, the party and the opposition parties are constrained and mutually rejected, the competition between the parties is fierce, and the political party is very obvious. In some major issues related to the people's livelihood, partisan interests over the interests of the public, the ruling party and the opposition to each other to lead the major policy and strategic thinking of the exchange of frequent, inconsistent, public policies are not smooth, the system is difficult, and many important reform measures are due to partisan stalemate and forced stranded Government departments may even be embarrassed by the closure. The government has become increasingly inefficient and sluggish, and the parties have become vetoed to veto, ignoring the waste of resources that the veto brings, and the gradual transformation of democracies into "veto regimes". Against this backdrop, Mr Obama's ambitious high-speed rail program has been stalled, and the health-care reforms he has put in office have been abolished by the subsequent Trump. On a range of issues, such as institutional reform, immigration and globalisation, the government's inability to respond to people's expectations of change, as a result of the infighting between political parties, has actually been mired in inefficiency.

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