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美国作业代写:Olson Collective Action

2017-12-04 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Olson Collective Action,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了奥尔森集体行动。奥尔森的集体行动理论,将集团概念的内涵界定为享有共同利益的个人组成的团体,他认为拥有共同利益的集团成员会自愿地增进集团利益这种观点毫无根据。对于理性的成员而言,共同利益绝不是他们采取一致行动的条件,奥尔森断定,参与集体行动对理性的个人来讲不符合收益最大化的考量。

Collective Action,集体行动理论,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Since the last half of 20th century, because Keynesian economics can not solve the problem of huge fiscal deficits and inflation, American society flourished and developed a new branch ——-public choice theory, which takes the problem of collective action which is not concerned with traditional economics theory as the research object. Kenneth· J. Arrow's "Social Choice and personal value", Cantor's "collective Action Economics", the "economic Theory of democracy" in towns, and the "agreed calculation" of Buchanan and Tulloch have all discussed the problem in varying degrees and put forward relevant theories. On the basis of the above research, The Economist Olson, with a completely new perspective, puts forward the logic of collective action, "opens the door to the formal research collective action."

The traditional collective theory of the conflict between individual rationality and collective interest is premised on "economic man hypothesis". The author argues that the "first law" of Adam Smith's economics, which is rooted in economic inducement, is to strive for the greatest economic benefit, and states: "Because the way he manages the industry is to maximize the value of its production, What he was thinking was only his own interest. On this occasion, like on many other occasions, he was guided by an unseen hand to try to achieve a purpose that was not what he intended to achieve. Nor is it harmful to society because it is not meant to be. His pursuit of his own interests often enabled him to contribute more effectively to the interests of society than he really was intended to be. Thus, groups of individuals with common interests will spontaneously promote those common interests, and "the Group will act as necessary to enhance their common objectives or group objectives". On the contrary, Olson's group theory is based on the "rational man hypothesis" that individuals who are rational and seeking self-interest do not voluntarily act voluntarily to achieve the interests of the group except by coercion or other special means. "Rationality is the ability of human beings to achieve purposeful results by reasoning behavior ... Rational behavior is a rational adaptation to the pursuit of the behavior of a certain purpose of behavior. "Rational people in the pursuit of their own interests in the process always tend to use effective methods to obtain maximum efficiency, that is, under certain output inputs to the minimum or under a certain input output." Based on this logical starting point of personal rationality, the members of the group will not "volunteer" for the value-added collective efforts.

Olson first defined the concept of the group as a group of individuals who enjoyed common interests, and that the idea that members of the group with common interests would voluntarily promote the interests of the group was unfounded. For rational members, the common good is by no means the condition of their concerted action, and Olson concludes that participation in collective action is not in the best interest of the rational individual. The reason is: first, the collective interest does not have the market to allocate the effective conditions of resources, it is a non competitive, inalienable and non-exclusive public goods, as long as one member of the group, can be reasonably free or cheap access to, while any group members on the use of such items, consumption will not affect other members, The hitch of hitchhiking arose. Secondly, for the individual, when the marginal cost of participating in the collective goods is more than the marginal income, but each member of the group can share the incremental income, the rational individual must choose to swallowed and divide the collective interest, but not to promote and create the collective interests spontaneously and automatically. "So, although all members of the group share a common interest in acquiring this group's interests, they have no common interest in the cost of acquiring this collective interest," he said. Everyone wants others to pay the full cost, and, regardless of whether or not they share the cost, they generally get the benefit of the offer "; therefore, Olson concludes that the conflict between individual rationality and collective interest leads to the ineffectiveness of collective action."

But not all groups are bound to gain the collective interest, which is related to the size of the group. "The human race is largely dominated by the interests of the people, and even when they extend their concerns beyond themselves, they do not grow far." "Unlike the traditional group theory, Olson pointed out that the size of the group members, the scale of the group of members of the Group's cohesion and effectiveness is not the same." He found that, in some small groups, because of the low number of members, the gains from each member's consumption of collective goods were always higher than the cost of their payments, so that no incentives were required for group members to participate spontaneously and voluntarily in collective action. Nor is the income of the collective members "unequal", that is, the individual member can gain much more than the benefits of the other members from the collective action or the loss of the member's participation in the collective action is far more than the other members, and he will voluntarily provide the collective goods. However, the larger the group, the larger the number, the less the share of the proceeds gained by collective action to enhance the group's interests, the more barriers to access to public goods need to be crossed. In other words, group size is an important factor that determines whether an individual will participate in group behavior spontaneously and rationally. Compared with the group, the organization cost of large groups is higher, the Pareto optimality is more difficult to achieve, so the large group of members is increasingly impossible to enhance its common interests. Olson's research focuses on the logic of collective action by large groups. Summed up, there are three factors leading to a larger group of "collective action Failure". First, the greater the number of groups, the smaller the share of total group earnings gained by each member in the interests of the collective, and the less rewards for participating in collective action; second, the larger the group, the more unlikely the individual members will be able to provide the collective goods spontaneously because of their interest in the collective goods, Because he was not earning enough to offset the cost of his expenses; third, the larger the number of group members, the higher the cost of organization, the higher the cost of obtaining the collective goods. Based on the above reasons, the larger the group away from the optimal supply of collective goods, the rational individual pursuit of efficiency of the "nature" has become the reason for collective action failure.

Olson's "Logic of collective action" a book, along with personal rationality 圯 hitchhiking 圯 collective action failure 圯 the logic of collective action dilemma, clearly criticized the historical view of group theory, that because of the non-exclusive, Non-competitive and externality of collective goods, Rational Group members are more willing to sit on collective gains and try to avoid taking responsibility, which ultimately leads to the ineffectiveness of collective action and the emergence of collective action dilemmas. So, the theoretical connotation of collective action logic can be summed up as follows: First, the logic of collective action refutes the theoretical misunderstanding that the social members of political science and sociologists believe that the common interests will spontaneously take action for the collective interest since Aristotle, since the members of each group are generally self-interest rational people, Instead of the "fools" who selflessly dedicate themselves to the collective interest, they calculate the proportional relationship between the cost and the benefits they pay, making the supply of collective goods not as plain sailing as the traditional group theory imagines, but full of frustration and uncertainty. Olson's concern is "the dilemma of collective action" or "The failure of collective action", saying that in most cases "collective inaction" is a universal and natural phenomenon that conforms to people's rational logic. Second, the cause of the collective action dilemma is hitchhiking. In the context of a group, collective income is public, that is, each member of the group is equally and collectively shared, whether or not it has paid the cost, and the individual contribution has little impact on the group as a whole or on the group members, and the members are not interdependent. Thus, based on expectations that others would provide collective goods, members of the group would not struggle to achieve common benefits, and ultimately contributed to the results of each member wanting a ride. Finally, in order to solve the contradictions and conflicts between individual interests and collective interests, the key problem is to get rid of the tendency of "hitchhiking" behavior of the group members. To overcome this dilemma, Olson devised a dynamic mechanism-selective incentives-that would inspire individuals ' desire to participate in collective action. Selective stimulation is the core mechanism that drives the success of collective action, and the dilemma of collective action is solved by system design, which allows each group member to gain personal benefits beyond its cost of payment.

Olson did not give a specific definition of selective motivation, "only an independent and ' selective ' incentive would drive rational individuals in a potential group to take action in favour of the group." Carding its theoretical logic can come to the conclusion that the so-called selective incentive is aimed at the group members in the collective action of the performance, or the ability to assume responsibility in the collective size, differentiated by the use of incentives or punishments to induce their participation in collective action, Ultimately, the goal of mobilizing the collective goods of the entire group to contribute to the achievement of more collective interests, which must be "selective", is to differentiate between individuals who are actively involved in collective action and those who stand idly and benefit. "The so-called selective motivation is what you can't get or lose if you don't take part in a collective action," Shong, the American sociologist, said briefly. "In the face of collective action failure, Olson's" selective motivation antidote "its mechanism is: in accordance with the group members in the collective action of the status and contribution, to give exclusive incentives, so that members of the group in addition to the enjoyment of public goods can obtain additional private benefits, to dissolve the" collective inaction "embarrassment, Realize the share of individual benefits and collective interests. Selective motivation is the glue that transforms individual self-interest into the promotion of public interest.

In nature, selective stimulation can be divided into positive and negative incentives. Positive motivation is to stimulate the group members to volunteer and enthusiastically bear the cost of collective goods and promote the collective interest by means of material and spiritual rewards; Negative motivation is to overcome the phenomenon of "hitchhiking" through various punishments. Incentives or punishments must exceed the cost of individual participation in collective action, or the mobilization of potential groups. From the formal perspective, selective incentives can be economic interests, including bonuses, wages, etc., can also be non economic interests, such as prestige, respect, friendship, trust and other emotions. From the type of view, can also be divided into monetary incentives, social incentives, psychological incentives and moral incentives. From the above, Olson's academic concern concludes that the general and homogeneous collective interest cannot inspire the group members to participate in the collective action enthusiasm, the solution to the lack of endogenous power of collective behavior only by selective incentive as the realization of the value of collective action path, The individual self-interest motivation is transformed into the action of promoting the common interests of the group through the system design, which leads to the mutual benefit of individual interests and the increment of the collective interest.

Olson's collective action theory is developed and perfected gradually by the development of economic theories, such as market failure and the government's runaway political theory. He criticized the loopholes of the traditional group theory under the premise of Rational man's hypothesis, discovered the law of the logic evolution of collective action, and made a creative attempt to overcome the dilemma of collective action-selective stimulation. He regards selective stimulation as a sharp weapon linking individual interests and collective interest and cracking down the dilemma of group behavior, and systematically puts forward and demonstrates the theory of how to overcome the plight of hitchhiking in the collective action of large group to promote the development of the group. It can be said that Olson's writings on collective action logic are of landmark significance to the study of collective action, and he deserves to be the founder of modern social group theory. However, the logic theory of collective action under the capitalist market economy, which is in all its ills, could not get rid of its ideological limitations, and eventually became "Olson's Dilemma".

First of all, Olson only from the micro market failure angle, to examine the modern market economy operation of group action inefficiency solution mechanism, ignoring the market economy is a historical social category. In fact, only on the basis of the dialectical development of productive forces and production relations, the paper studies the Operation Law and internal contradictions of capitalist economy, can we deeply realize the fundamental malpractice of capitalist market economy and find the effective economic prescription. The various means used by the capitalist countries to solve the crisis are bound to be surpassed, which is the inevitable historical choice for mankind to explore a better social system. Secondly, the rational behavioral choice theory, which obeys the neo-classical economics research, is the logical starting point of Olson's collective action theory, which has a great limitation. The rational person is regarded as the only characteristic of human nature, talking abstractly about rational action, studying how to add total personal preference, ignoring the essence that man is the sum of all social relations, the proposed solution inevitably goes to the logical dead end of collective action failure. Finally, the selective incentive mechanism proposed by Olson is only an idealistic design. Where is the selective incentive to sustain the collective action of large groups in the market under ownership, and how do we ensure that selective incentives are funded and the collective action of the executing organization? In Olson's theory, there was no further justification. Unable to solve the group members hitchhiking behavior, can not overcome the collective action of the profit, monopoly and inefficiency, then the capitalist countries of the economic recession can not be removed.

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