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美国作业代写:McIntyre's moral character in After virtue

2017-09-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- McIntyre's moral character in After virtue,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了麦金太尔《德性之后》中的德性思想。麦金太尔是现代非常著名的道德哲学家,在他的著作《德性之后》中,麦金太尔指出现代西方社会已经深陷道德危机,并对此进行了不遗余力的猛烈批判。麦金太尔坚信,只有回归亚里士多德的德性论,将它放在历史传统中重新表述,才能使道德在现代语境中恢复其可理解性和合理性。

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McIntyre in the "de sex", pointed out that the modern Western society has been in a deep moral crisis, and to the relentless criticism of this. The article is about the logic of the text after the "Virtue sex", this paper introduces McIntyre's reflection and critique of the modern Western moral situation, analyzes the realistic cause and historical origin of the moral crisis, and puts forward the revival of the tradition by pursuing the method of virtue, and expounds the neo-virtue theory of McIntyre from the three aspects of practice, personal life as a whole and tradition. Try to reconstruct the moral foundation of society and get out of the dilemma of moral crisis.

McIntyre is a famous moral philosopher in Britain and America, and he is renowned in Western academia for his unique ideas in the field of moral philosophy. His masterpiece, "After Virtue" published in 1981, was hailed as "the most important book in the last 10 years". This book has carried on the powerful critique to the modern Western society's morals present situation, and has stood in Aristotle's moral tradition standpoint to elaborate his moral thought. His viewpoint aroused the attention and controversy of the Western academia, and also caused great impact and influence to the Western academia.

McIntyre in the first chapter of the "De sex" is a worrying idea: a huge catastrophe occurred in the field of science, all scientific knowledge and science education has been abolished. After the Holocaust, some people were conscious of the benefits and importance of science and tried to revive science. Yet science has been uprooted in the Holocaust. People try to restore all kinds of science by the memory of the remnant, but they start endlessly arguing over their memory biases. No one can prove that they are right, and no one can restore the entire vast scientific system. Ultimately, the scientific system is still not reversible, and the entire scientific community is in a state of chaos and disorder.

McIntyre makes such a hypothesis to illustrate. The contemporary moral context, like the science after the Holocaust, is in a state of serious disorder. He believes that modern people's understanding of morality is far from the traditional moral concepts, and there are endless and contradictory arguments about morality. In the case of "Justice for war", there are many opposing views: a belief that war will harm innocent civilians, that war is unjust, and that the only way to achieve peace is to expand armaments to deter potential threats, and therefore war is just There is also a view that war justice depends on the specific circumstances. In this case, we can see that there is no termination and irreducible nature of contemporary moral controversy. Conflicting views and opinions are not possible. No one can persuade the other to accept their views, there is only endless debate between the two sides, there can be no agreement, thus forming countless conflicts and opposing moral arguments.

McIntyre believes that this is the current situation of contemporary moral context, all kinds of moral controversy endlessly endless, unable to reach a consensus, there is no objective, definite debate end point. The moral language is a disorder of chaos, resulting in a moral nihilism and relativism, which leads to a serious moral crisis.

McIntyre believes that the real reason of social morality's deep crisis lies in the prevalence of emotion in modern society. Emotion is a theory that claims to be interpreted in terms of arbitrary values, and it is a theory: "All evaluative judgments." In particular, all moral judgments. In terms of their nature, they are moral or evaluative, and are merely expressions of hobbies, attitudes or feelings. ...... However, the moral judgment of expressing emotion and attitude is neither true nor false, there is no reasonable way to ensure that the moral judgment is consistent, because there is no such method at all, and if there is a certain irrational effect on the attitude or emotion of the divided person: we use moral judgment not only to express our feelings and attitudes. To be exact, it also affects others. "The emotional fundamentalists think. Moral judgment is different from personal feelings and personal likes and dislikes, and moral behavior has no objective criterion. Neither the past, nor the present, nor the future, nor the universal objective judgment of moral standards. The prevalence of emotion led to the objective and impersonal moral standards in the first phase ceased to exist, and the society gradually lost its moral foundation, resulting in a profound moral crisis.

Affective doctrine is the concrete embodiment of contemporary Western moral culture and the realistic cause of crisis, and its source of thought can be traced back to the Enlightenment. Unlike the Western mainstream ideology, which strongly advocated the Enlightenment, Mr. McKinley pointed the finger at the Enlightenment, thinking that enlightenment was a complete failure of the movement, and its failure directly led to the contemporary moral and cultural dilemma. After the Enlightenment, the rationality of morality in the 17 century and 18th century became the core of the whole Western culture.

According to the division of McIntyre, the modern proof moral philosophy can be classified into two or three types, which are the proofs of Kierkegaard, Kant and Hume respectively. McIntyre argues that any of these three forms of proof is a failure, because these moral proofs undermine Aristotle's teleological tradition of virtue. Aristotle's System of Ethics is a teleological system, which consists of three factors, ―― "Humanity under the condition of enlightenment", "reasonable moral precepts" and "human nature which can be formed after people realize their purpose". The original human nature is not enlightened, need the guidance of ethics, so that people after enlightenment to form the ethical precepts of humanity. One of the consequences of the Enlightenment is Aristotle's teleological system. The concept of "people who may become human beings after recognizing the true purpose of a person" has been abolished, and the moral system has become a fragmentary system consisting of only two elements and a vague and confusing relationship. Aristotle's teleology was destroyed, the purpose of life was removed from the ethical system, the modern philosophers inherited some of the fragments of the moral system from the history of philosophy, but did not realize the incompleteness of the theory, not fully aware of their own era of unique cultural environment, There is a inconsistency between their understanding of the concept of human nature and the moral principles they put forward, so that their work on the justification of morality is bound to fail.

The complete failure of the Enlightenment has made contemporary moral language and moral practice in a state of great disorder, and Mr. McKinley is actively seeking solutions to such a worrying moral situation. Since enlightenment since the road of modernity has failed, then there are two paths to choose from: Back to the pre-modern or beyond the modern arrival of modern. The common place of the former and postmodern is to criticize the Enlightenment, and the representatives of the two are Aristotle and Nietzsche respectively.

Nietzsche thinks that morality is embodied in "Superman", and Superman makes moral law and decides the demarcation between good and evil. Superman does not associate with people, there is no practical activity, good only exists in his transcendence of himself. Nietzsche, though anti-modern. But he is not anti-individualism, he proposed superhuman morality is actually another form of individualism, moral standards are still as emotional as personal preference, but this personal preference is superhuman personal preference. McIntyre believes that this superhuman morality will inevitably lead to moral rationalism, so the way forward is not advisable, the right way is to return to the former modern, Aristotle. Through the inheritance and development of Aristotle's concept of virtue, he analyzed the concept of "virtue" and put forward his own new concept of virtue.

The meaning of the first level of the concept of virtue is based on the interpretation of "practice". McIntyre explains that practice is an activity that requires human collaboration. It is a very wide range of activities, including the creation and maintenance of the production and life of communities such as the state, the city and the family. In practice and "intrinsic interest", intrinsic interest is inherent in the interests of practice, its relationship with practice is inevitable, as long as the participation in practical activities, it is necessary to obtain the intrinsic benefits of this activity. Intrinsic interests are not the possessions of certain individuals, and the intrinsic interests of some people in practice do not lead to a reduction in the possession of other people of intrinsic interests, and the intrinsic benefit is beneficial to the entire group of practitioners.

After explaining the practical and intrinsic interests, we can define the first stage of virtue: "Virtue is a kind of acquired human quality, and this virtue possesses and practices, and is the intrinsic benefit that we can gain practice." These benefits are not available without this virtue. , McIntyre believes that this is an initial definition of virtue, and expounds the importance of virtue to human beings ―― in human life and practice, virtue is essential, it enables people to gain the intrinsic benefits of practice, if there is no virtue, the inherent interests of practice and people are not. In other words, virtue makes human practice sustainable:

However, if an activity does not bring us any benefit, we should not practise virtue. and。 If there is a conflict between the various virtues in an activity, what kind of virtue should we practise? McKinley was not only stuck in the practice of understanding virtue, but the transition to the second phase of virtue.

Individuals in contemporary society play different roles in different fields, and the unity of personality is dismembered. McIntyre believes that people should live as a whole, live a whole life throughout life, such a life can be provided to the whole of virtue with a proper purpose. The wholeness of the individual's life is embodied in a coherent narrative that connects a person's life, as the beginning of birth, as a process of life, and as an end to death. Human life in different time and place have different or even conflict of moral behavior, but people have a unity of personality, this unity exists in his narrative history, his deeds and deeds only in this history is understandable and can be explained. The unity of personality embodies the unity of the human life Plan, which comes from the highest purpose, namely good, and is in the pursuit of the purpose of life and kindness. Acquire knowledge and kindness about self.

Thus, McIntyre defines the second stage of virtue: "Virtue must be understood as a quality: it will not only maintain practice, but also give us the intrinsic benefit of practice." It will also enable us to overcome the harm, danger, temptation and laxity that we encounter, thus supporting us in the pursuit of the kind of relevance. We will also enrich our growing self-awareness and understanding of goodness. "The definition of this stage. The good life of man needs virtue, virtue plays such a role in the pursuit of purpose and kindness in life, which not only enables the practice to go on, but also gains the intrinsic benefit of practice, gives people the knowledge and good knowledge about themselves, and also plays a supporting role in encouraging people to overcome setbacks. Continue to be steadfast in the pursuit of good.

The second stage of the definition of virtue is related to the good life of man. However, a good life is specific and diverse, people will have different understanding of good life because of different times, places and circumstances. If the virtue is defined according to the good Life, the concept of virtue is incidental and arbitrary. Therefore, McIntyre stressed that it is not only the individual's identity to seek good and practise virtue. According to McIntyre's view, everyone is in the community. Assume a particular social role in the community. It is from his family, the country, the nation that inherits all that belongs to him personally. All that he inherited constituted the established part of the "I" life, which laid the starting point for the moral of man.

"I" is one of the traditional bearer, then what is the tradition? Tradition is the continuation and inheritance of history, is a living tradition, it not only to undertake the past, but also face the future. However, not all historical traditions are passed on, and some traditions continue to evolve over time, and some of them decay, decompose and disappear. McIntyre's answer to this question is: the practice of the relevant virtues strengthens the tradition, otherwise, the lack of related virtues weakens the tradition. "If the practice is to be gained in the interest of the many minutes, virtue is to maintain those necessary relations, and virtue not only in maintaining those necessary relationships, but also in the way of maintaining personal life ―― in this way, the individual with his overall life of good to seek ―― has its meaning and role, And it has its significance and role in maintaining the tradition of providing the necessary historical relevance to practice and to the individual. "This is the third and final stage of virtue: the meaning and function of virtue is to preserve tradition, to endow practice and personal life with the necessary historical relevance." With justice, sincerity, courage and other related virtues and practice them, you can maintain a good tradition, the lack of these virtues, will corrupt tradition, so that the traditional gradually disintegrated or even eventually perish.

Thus, the three-phase definition of virtue has been given. In the first level, virtue is related to practice, the maintenance of practice, so that people get the benefits inherent in practice, in the second sense, the moral and personal life, the maintenance of personal life, so that people in life to pursue as the overall life of their own good; in the third sense, virtue is related to tradition, maintaining tradition, To endow practice and personal life with the necessary historical relevance. Through these three levels of definition, McKinley gives a complete definition of virtue.

In the eyes of McKinley. In the course of the long history development of virtue, it has undergone three stages: all kinds of virtue, virtue and virtue. The first stage is the various stages of the German sex. This period has formed the moral tradition of Aristotle's teleological ethic system as the core. During this period. Virtue is related to practice and personal life as a whole in order to gain the benefits inherent in practice and the qualities necessary for a person's good life. Because of the variety of life and practice types, virtue is also diverse, which is manifested in the plural forms of the various virtues. Although the development phase of the virtue of diversity, but not scattered, but by a dominant purpose of life to combine them together, so that they play their role in life, supporting people to know themselves, enrich themselves, in the process of continuous pursuit of good, a good life.

The second development stage of virtue is the singular moral period, and the virtue is changed from plural virtue to singular virtue. This is a period of modernity and development, modernization leads to production out of the family and become water, production and labor is excluded from their own intrinsic interests outside the scope of practice, resulting in the concept of practice has been marginalized to social life and cultural edge. At the same time, the whole narrative understanding of human life has been expelled to the edge of modern culture. Although the concept of practice and the whole notion of personal life, which provides the necessary background for the traditional theory of virtue, is marginalized, but the virtue is not abandoned, people also use the traditional concept of virtue, the practice of virtue is still as usual in all aspects of social life, which produces a irreconcilable contradictions and inconsistencies, resulting in the consequences are, Whether in concept or in practice, virtue is no longer the virtue of history.

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