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留学生作业代写:Micro computer hardware and software maintenance

2017-09-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Micro computer hardware and software maintenance,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了微型计算机软硬件维护。微型计算机的故障表现形式有很多,一般分为硬件故障和软件故障。故障的表现形式不同,处理方式不同。而微型计算机要想避免这些故障,就必须对微型计算机的软硬件进行日常维护。

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21st century has entered the digital era, the application of micro-computer penetrated into various fields, the maintenance and maintenance of microcomputers has become an urgent need. The microcomputer is composed of software and hardware, this paper probes into the software and hardware of the microcomputer, and gives the general steps and methods of the fault detection and maintenance of the software and hardware with the use case.

21st century, has entered the digital era, with the development of science and technology, micro-computer in various fields have been widely used, infiltration of people's learning, life, work in all aspects, and people's lives, enterprise development and social progress has produced tremendous impact. The microcomputer includes hardware and software, hardware is the physical installation of microcomputers, and is the foundation of software operation. General micro-computer hardware is mainly divided into keyboard, mouse, monitor and host box 4 parts, mainframe hardware mainly includes the motherboard, CPU, memory, hard disk, optical drive, video card, sound card, network card, power and other parts. Micro-computer software is divided into two parts: System software and application software. System software refers to the management, to control and maintain the computer and its external equipment, to provide the interface between the user and the computer software, it is generally provided by computer manufacturers, in order to manage and make full use of computer resources, to facilitate the use and maintenance of users, to play and expand the computer function, improve the efficiency of the general software. Application software is generally refers to those who can directly help individuals or units to complete the specific work of a variety of software, such as word processing software, computer-aided design software, enterprise institutions, information management software and game software, it is generally not independent on the computer running and must have system software support. Practice has proved that more than 80% of the micro-computer system failure occurs in the software part, only a few are caused by hardware.

Hardware failure is caused by the quality of the hardware components of the microcomputer or improper use of the fault, need to locate, repair or replace the defective parts. Many hardware failures are caused by improper use of software. According to the working principle of microcomputer, the hardware fault is divided into line fault, mechanical fault, medium fault and man-made fault.

The line fault is the circuit breaker or short circuit; mechanical failure is caused by the mechanical part of the external equipment, such as the mouse left and right key, the printer does not take paper. Media fault refers to the external storage equipment failure, mainly disk damage, head collision disk surface, sudden strong magnetic field interference, data transmission parts error, disk controller error and so on. An artificial fault is a malfunction caused by improper working or operation under conditions. Good operation of microcomputers generally require working temperature between 16℃-28℃, humidity maintained at 8%-80%, voltage stable working environment.

Software failure is a lot of reasons, generally refers to improper use of microcomputer software and caused by the fault, software failure is generally recoverable, such as computer viruses caused by the fault, with antivirus software after killing, the system can basically recover. Software failure is mainly manifested in system failure, loss of system files, drive mismatch, virus, low memory, blue screen error prompts.

There are many fault manifestations of microcomputers, for example, after the system starts no sound, the system can not be launched after the Internet, the system can not print after boot, the boot screen no display, the system can not start, the system repeatedly restarted, the system started after some program flashback, boot screen flower screen, machine frequent crashes, system blue screen and so on. Some faults can be easily diagnosed as hardware and software failures, or it can be seen that the machine is a bit of a problem, such as after the start of the computer has no sound, generally check the control panel inside the sound and audio settings are normal, uninstall the driver after the sound card to install again if the problem is not resolved, The next job is to open the chassis, if it is unique, first try the temperature, temperature is not high, to pull the plug, you can properly wipe, see the effect. But for some problems, it is not easy to distinguish which part of the problem, for example, after the screen splash screen, sometimes screen problems, sometimes may be caused by the memory bar. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and troubleshoot the problems that occur in microcomputers accurately.

To determine whether it is a software failure or a hardware failure, the commonly used methods are:

Power led after the normal, and display, soft disk and so on without any display and read disk response, is generally a hardware failure.

After a failure, the DOS prompt cannot be displayed after restarting the computer, and the CMOS setting is correct for a hard fault.

Power-on self-test is sometimes directly indicated as a hard fault.

Although the boot display, soft hard drive response, but can not complete the self-test, do not display the system prompt, it is generally a hard fault.

If you cannot boot the boot operating system from the hard disk, and the floppy disk boot cannot be completed, it is generally a hard fault.

Typically, a soft fault occurs when the operating system is booted from a floppy disk or hard disk after a failure, and a DOS prompt is displayed.

In order to quickly determine the cause of the failure, the microcomputer is used to repair the microcomputer, and the artificial diagnosis is more common. The method of artificial diagnosis can be divided into: direct observation method, inserting method, test method, Exchange method, vibrating percussion method, warming and cooling method, cleaning method and so on.

The direct observation method is suitable for the maintenance experience person, simply is "sees, smells, listens, touches". For obvious faults, such as a marked Scorch mark on the motherboard, or a bad resistor capacitance, or the connection line is disconnected, can be at a glance, with "see" Can judge the fault point; "smell" is aimed at the micro-computer is not a burning smell, "Listen" refers to the operation of the machine is abnormal voice; "Touch" is the motherboard and the connection detection, Whether there is loosening. The interpolation method is an effective method to check the faults and is suitable for the failure without any display. When the machine failure, you can remove the suspected faulty parts, such as can unplug the soft drive power cord, video card, network card and other equipment, suitable for the rapid positioning of the fault. The test means that when there is a failure, and not clear the specific location of the fault, you can change some parts of the microcomputer to determine the failure, such as the boot screen is not displayed, you can check the video card, for integrated graphics, you can also tentatively replace the memory bar, or replace the memory slot. The switching method is used for the easy-pluggable maintenance environment, such as the error of the memory self-test, the change after the exchange, the location is determined by block exchange. The vibration percussion method is good for the machine when the bad, may be a part of the poor contact, through the percussion can solve the problem, and can determine the cause of the failure. The heating and cooling method mainly aims at the slow reaction speed or the crash after the machine running for a certain time, through the power off, to see if the failure to improve, so as to determine the fault point; Cleaning method is for the micro-computer operating environment, the existence of a large number of dust when used, for the motherboard dust best use of hair brush or hair dryer equipment removal,   For the oxidation site, can be used eraser wipe, after observing the fault change. For the artificial detection can not accurately judge the hardware and software fault, in order to detect, locate the fault, need some equipment for qualitative and quantitative analysis, in the microcomputer system commonly used fault detection equipment: Diagnostic inspection Procedures, simulators, Logic Analyzer, on-line test system, IC tester, oscilloscope, logic pen, Three-use table and some special tester.

Microcomputer boot, the computer screen black screen, the main power supply lights and hard drive lights, the host no abnormal sound

Solution: According to the failure situation, first look at the screen power cable is normal connection, check the screen and the host line is dropped, after reseating the data line, if the problem is not resolved, open the host box, the memory of the plug, properly wipe the memory bar, or replace the memory slot, boot to see if the problem is resolved, If the problem persists, the point of failure should be the graphics of the machine, if it is an independent graphics card, replace the same model graphics experiment, if not a separate graphics card, motherboard problems, replace the motherboard or motherboard repair, problem resolution.

New operating system of the microcomputer, through the wireless network card can be access to the Internet, through the wired network card is not, the network card status shows normal

Workaround: Test whether the wired connection to the network is a path, a simple way to test with a notebook, if the notebook is normal, the fault point is definitely the problem of the wired network card, the first to uninstall the driver of the network card, to find the system with CD-ROM, or use wireless internet to download the driver of the driver board with the network card, Reinstall driver to see if the problem is resolved, the problem resolution indicates that the NIC driver version does not match.

The boot after the boot display error message, enter the BIOS, automatic detection can not find the hard drive

Workaround: Depending on the fault inference problem on the hard drive, the hard drive is bad or the data cable or IDE interface is damaged and the replacement method is used to troubleshoot further.

When no new hardware or software upgrades are installed on the microcomputer, a blue screen is turned on, prompting for hardware errors or illegal operation

Solution: Shutdown, the machine to heat treatment, boot to see whether the effect, if still blue screen, the simplest way is to reload the operating system.

Microcomputer maintenance is a complex work, involving both software and hardware pieces of knowledge, the failure of the manifestation of different forms of processing, in the specific work practice needs constant exploration and experience summary, according to the diagnosis method of microcomputer fault analysis, positioning, Refer to troubleshooting steps for troubleshooting. With the renewal of technology, new problems are appearing continuously, so it is better to do the maintenance of microcomputers in practice and groping.

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