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留学生作业代写:Differences between Marx and classical political scientists

2017-08-31 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Differences between Marx and classical political scientists,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了马克思与古典政治经济学家的分歧。马克思与政治经济学家都在研究人,但是他们对人的理解却表现出很大的差异。马克思在《德意志意识形态》中阐释的现实的人的概念在历史唯物主义中占据突出地位。在马克思在分析现实的人时,立足于现实、立足于历史。他从对各个时代的历史考查中洞悉现实的人。

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As an important document of Marx's writing in the study of political economics, James muller, the political economy and a book abstract, has far-reaching significance in the history of Marx's thought formation. Starting from the differences between Marx and classical political economists, this paper analyzes their different understandings of people, labor and market economy, and shows that Marx, as a beginner of political economy, has neither entered the analytical framework of classical political economy nor organically combined philosophy and economics as in capital. Marx turned to the study of economics because of his ideological background and the existence of a prerequisite disagreement with classical economists.

" James muller ", a summary of the book of Political Economy (hereinafter referred to as "Mueller commentary") is a note written by Marx when he began to study political economics in Paris. This note is different from the general notes, which contains many of Marx's own ideas to play. However, as a literature which occupies a unique position in the history of Marx's thought, it has not been paid much attention in the domestic. Only in recent years has the situation been fundamentally improved. Scholars have carried out deep research and fruitful results. But there are still some problems to be studied. For example, Marx's comments in the Mueller commentary were written on behalf of political economists such as James muller. When we study the commentary of Mueller, we should not deviate from the object of Marx's critique, it is necessary to carry on comparative study with the viewpoint of political economist.

Marx and political economists are all studying people, but their understanding of people shows great difference. Marx's concept of reality, which is explained in the German ideology, occupies a prominent position in historical materialism. Marx's understanding of the reality of the person "is engaged in activities, the production of material, and therefore in a certain material, not subject to their arbitrary domination of the boundaries, conditions and circumstances to actively express themselves." "The real person is the person who is engaged in the material production life." These people can be observed and regulated through empirical methods. The real man is not a pure philosophical concept, not an abstract person. Marx in the analysis of the reality of the person, based on the reality, based on history. He is a man who knows the truth from the historical examination of various eras.

In fact, for the real person, Marx wrote in the Mueller commentary, "people ―― not abstract concepts, but as real, living, special individuals." While Marx did not elaborate on the reality of what he understood, the concept of the reality of man was still somewhat coarse, but the concept of this reality was already there. And based on the understanding of the real person, Marx has seen "human nature is the real social connection," Society is not an abstraction. Because to face the real person, in the living life of the realistic man, the hard reality will show that man is not pure thought, he must toil for the continuance of his life, while in labor, collective strength is a greater force than the individual power, the inevitability of social contact arises.

Using the realistic man as the critical weapon, Marx criticized the political economy fiercely. First, Marx made a moral critique of political economy. This is reflected in the study of the relationship between Marx and credit. What credit is, Marx did not talk about its content, its content is only currency. Marx explores the nature of credit. The credit relationship consists of two kinds of relationships: "A rich man lends money to a poor man he thinks is industrious and creditworthy." Under such a warm romantic picture, Marx saw the implied impersonal relationship in the credit relationship. The social virtues and life activities of the poor are the guarantee of repaying his money in the eyes of the rich, and they are not of any value. Through the examination of credit, Marx can not help but exclaim, "in the credit relationship with the currency to estimate how despicable a person is!" From this, Marx denies the rational existence of political economy credit.

Secondly, Marx thought the reality person is the complete, the living person, cannot do the abstract understanding. Political economists in the analysis of credit, people do a partial understanding. "Here people are not as human beings, but as the existence of some kind of capital and interest." "The reality of the people do not exist, a fresh person into a currency, people unexpectedly and money became the same." Not only in the credit relationship, in the production, consumption and other links, the real, living people are a one-sided understanding of the political economy. People are not human beings in the capitalist system, people are alienated.

The views of the political scientists differ from those of Marx. First of all, political economy tries to avoid moral judgments, thinks that it has the nature of "value neutrality" under certain conditions, political economy is not an analysis of art or ethics, but an independent science. It can be explained by the results of certain actions, but it does not provide moral judgment, does not explain what is good, what is bad, what is should, and what is not. Political economy avoids the inclusion of moral judgments in its own research subjects, which are related to the subjects of political economics. Although these economists have subtle differences in the subjects of political economics, they have almost unanimously considered wealth as the main object of study, studying the production and distribution of wealth. This also excludes the moral judgment.

Secondly, the political economist is not the person who is completely realistic, but puts the person as the specific research object, under certain premise hypothesis. In his writings published in the same year as Marx's "Mueller commentary", John wrote about the classical political economist's understanding of people, who argued that "political economy focuses only on individuals who aspire to wealth", and "all human activities are simply the acquisition and consumption of wealth". In this way, classical economists do not study the diversity of people in real life, but the pursuit of wealth maximization of the economic category.

In the Mueller commentary, Marx also analyzed the concept of labor as a classical political economy, but their understanding of labor was different. First, Marx did not explicitly recognize the theory of labor value. The theory of labor value is one of the core theories of classical political economics, and James muller is also a labor value theory. It should be noted that Marx later inherited the theory of labor value and further deepened it. But when Marx wrote the Mueller commentary, there was no evidence that he had accepted the theory of labor value. Muller believes that the value of currency metals is determined by the cost of production, while the cost of production is mainly labor costs. In this regard, Marx thought that those economists "in the expression of the law of the time ignored the change of this law or constantly discard, and the abstract law is through the change and continuous sublation to achieve." Obviously, Marx did not value Mueller's theory of values, because it did not reveal the true nature of value determination. The political economy is just grasping a law that is to be discarded and not letting go. They didn't see that the law of value determination was changing. Production costs are not the main determinant of value, and changes in demand and supply affect value decisions as well. Value is not decided by a factor abstract, in reality, it is determined by a variety of factors. Marx thought, "This kind of reality movement ... By the modern national economist distorted into a sexual, not essential thing. Since Marx thought that the value theory of classical economics is not the essential link, it is not the real basis of exchange, then it seems that Marx should explain his understanding of the problem. However, by the limitations of Marx's theory at that time, he did not explain the basis of the exchange in the Mueller commentary. But Marx thought, "the size of the power that my goods have over your belongings, of course, requires your recognition to become true power." But it is a struggle for us to recognize each other's power over our own goods. Marx did not take Labor as the basis of exchange, but it seemed to recognize mutual recognition as the basis of exchange, and the thought of mutual recognition benefited from Hegel. With this thought, Marx believed that the basis of the exchange was the struggle, and in the struggle, those who were more powerful and more cunning triumphed. In this struggle who can deceive who, this has the very big accidental nature. Since accidental factors play such an important role in exchange, there is no strict law of value in the Exchange. Marx does not recognize the theory of labor value. But the classical political scientists he read almost all agree with the theory of labor value. Adam Smith believed that "Labor is the real measure of the value of exchange of all commodities." He comprehensively expounded his theory of labor value in his great book, the study of the nature and causes of national wealth. Ricardo inherits this theory and carries it through. As the representative of Ricardo School, James muller also insists on the theory of labor value in the third chapter of "Exchange" of political economy.

Marx did not see the unique function of labor in the value decision, but put the labor on another level. Marx thought that the labor is "the positive realization of the individual existence", but under the capitalist system, the labor product is not as the positive display of individual ability, but "as value, as the exchange price, as the equivalent to produce." The product of labor is not a direct personal relationship with the producer, but a product outside of him that is not under his control. Labor is merely a source of income and a means of earning a living. Marx analyzed the labor as a means of subsistence from four aspects. First, "The alienation and accidental connection of Labor to the subject of labor"; second, "The alienation and accidental connection of Labor to Labor"; third, the labor of workers depends on the needs of society, but in the capitalist system, the needs of society is a coercive external force, is that he has to obey the force, He could not freely determine the content and manner of his work, the content of his labor is provided by another person, by the capitalist, and the labor becomes the means to obtain the subsistence, the purpose of labor is merely to maintain the workers ' own survival, but the workers are compelled to do the opposite of their wishes under the pressure of starvation and poverty. Here Marx analyzed the human suffering of capitalist system from the alienation of Labor and Labor and labor. This observation perspective was further played in the 1844 economic philosophy manuscript.

The classical economist's understanding of labor meaning and Marx's have obvious difference. In the analysis of classical economists, labor exists as a means, without labor there is no necessities of life, without labor there is not a great deal of social wealth, and without labor it is impossible to promote social welfare. Labor in the eyes of classical economists is the activity that people have to engage in. Such activities are not required in themselves. Because Labor is hard, it can not be a source of happiness. Only in consumer labor products can people be satisfied.

Marx's critique of classical political economy in Mueller's commentary is manifold. Marx and classical political economists not only differ in their views on people and labor. There are also differences in the more specific theoretical viewpoints. This discrepancy is particularly reflected in the different perspectives on the market economy. In particular, Marx did not use the concept of a market economy at this point. But it is advisable to generalize the object of Marx's critique with market economy. Because Marx is here to comment on the "modern national economist", these economists are studying the developed capitalist market economy, and secondly, the phenomena that Marx criticizes are the essential characteristics of market economy, such as private ownership based on equity and the great role of money in economic activities, With the development of money, the credit industry is developed, and the development of the currency is based on the general development of the commodity economy. From its universality, capitalist production is the first universal commodity production, which is produced for the market.

First, Marx criticizes the market economy with the theory of alienation and foreign language. The reason why the alienation, the outward, from its reality analysis, this is because engaged in the production is the private person. "The relationship of the Society of two private persons or the relation of the society manifests as the mutual outward of the private property, manifested as the relationship of the two sides or as the outward of the relationship between them." Private property is the definition of "private property, which is derived from its alienation or dissimilation". The private property and the exterior are intertwined, the exercise of the private property will inevitably lead to the outward, and the manifestation of the private property is exercised. The relationship of private property is manifested as the outward, because the private property is no longer the labor product of the private property, and it is no longer his personality performance in the mutual exchange between the private property. His private property became the private property of another person, and the private property belonging to the man was now no longer belonged to him and belonged to another person. According to Marx's view, "Labor is the direct source of life for the laborer, but it is also the positive realization of his personal existence". But in the private property relationship has occurred in the outside, the workers can only use their own unilateral production to meet their various needs, Labor has become a means of livelihood, Labor has become accidental, not essential labor. Labor is no longer a positive manifestation of individuality, but is restricted by external conditions. These external conditions, which are not controlled by the workers, are changes in the needs of others that are brought about by changes in the market. In the face of the needs of society that he had to obey, his work was alienated from his nature.

Secondly, in the process of criticizing the commodity economy, Marx conceived his own mode of production, which is opposite to the market-oriented commodity. The production of Marx's conception is the production of human being. In this production process, people not only affirmed their existence, but also affirmed the existence of others. Each person in his production process materialized his personality, in this activity he actively enjoy his life. And "in the intuitive sense of the commodity because of the realization that my personality is material, can intuitively perceive the power and thus no doubt the enjoyment of personal pleasure." This enjoyment is not only realized in one person, it is also realized in another person where it is reciprocal. Each person in the production to play its personality characteristics. This personality is not something else, but is in line with the personality characteristics of human nature. Marx emphasized the importance of freedom when he discussed the characteristic of individuality. The human "labor is the life expression of freedom, therefore is the joy of life". Without the free expression of individuality, man's life will no longer belong to him, but be ruled by a force outside of himself. And that's what happens under the conditions of a market economy. The result of the market economy is that Labor becomes the outer of life, and labor is only a means to obtain subsistence, labor is not a free and conscious activity, but a kind of activities that have to be carried out, it is added to the laborer. The work that Marx conceived is the real property of man.

Classical political economist's understanding of market economy is different from that of Marx. Classical economists are almost always supporters of the market economy. The father of modern economics Adam Smith explained his "invisible hand" principle in his groundbreaking work on the nature and causes of national wealth. The producer "is guided by an unseen hand to try to achieve a purpose that is not what he intended to achieve". However, "his pursuit of his own interests tends to make him more effective in promoting the interests of society than in the real case of his intention". Smith is here to personally pursue private.

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