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留学生作业代写:How Cloud computing to maximize value while managing risks

2017-07-04 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- How Cloud computing to maximize value while managing risks,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了云计算技术。云计算是一种新引入的信息技术,它为企业带来了创新的IT变革。由于云计算带来的巨大好处,越来越多的公司将云计算引入了商业圈。此外,大多数公司的营业额增长率的瓶颈迫使他们采取成本节约政策。在这种情况下,云计算为他们提供了一种可以降低成本的方法。

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1. Research Background  

Cloud computing is a newly introduced information technology which have brought innovative IT transformation into the enterprises. Since the technology is introduced to the public, researchers and scientists have identify the huge potential upon cloud computing. Due to the tremendous benefits which cloud computing will create, an increasing number of companies have implemented cloud computing into business circle. Moreover, the bottleneck of turnover growth rate of most companies have forced them to conduct cost saving policies. Under this circumstances, cloud computing provides them a way to cut down cost on unprofitable yet strategically important IT department. Consequently, cloud computing has become the hottest subject in the field of information technology.

However, despite of the popularity of cloud computing, its definition is controversial. One of the most convincing definition comes from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST for short. The authors Peter Mell and Timothy Grance identified several characteristics of cloud computing. They defined cloud computing as the services which are provided with access to shared pool of computing resources. From this concept, the mechanism of users applying cloud computing can be concluded as the following. Cloud service providers offer tremendous computing resources that are beyond the budget of users. Users will be charged if they expect to enjoy the convenience that cloud computing may bring. Prompt access to the cloud will enable users to accomplish IT operation by using the equipment from the service providers. In order to accomplish the goal of the cloud, network cloud is essential to link the enterprises and cloud vendors. In another word, cloud server run the application, for example, and send back the results via Internet connection.

Three major models are commonly recognized as Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). SaaS refers to the concept that cloud providers develop cloud applications and software for users. By this mean users can access to the software or applications via Internet connection tools such web browser. PaaSprovides software platform for users. PaaSpurchaser can utilize the develop environment or software platform to develop and debug their own applications without worrying about the elasticity and scalability.IaaS offers serials of IT infrastructure to ensure the resource requirements for users’ specific applications.

Sridhar proposes six characteristics which are elasticity and scalability, pay-per-use, on demand, resiliency, multitenancy and workload movement. He suggests that not all of them will be presented in one cloud solution.

2. Opportunities and Risks

As a recently arose technology, cloud computing has reformed the traditional data management in IT department. Advanced algorithms gradually filled the research blank of cloud computing comparing with decades ago. As a result, enterprises can profit from the brand new technology greatly. Several advantages can be identified provided companies apply cloud into IT management.

The first but most strategically important is budget control. Cloud providers conduct cloud services by offering sophisticated infrastructure or platform. Cloud users no longer have to purchase expensive IT equipment to satisfy the needs of implementing a new application. What’s more, users can use software and applications providers provides. Undoubtedly, the saving of advanced infrastructure will directly result in the cost reduction within the enterprise. Certainly, the tempting benefit have attracted great deal of companies attempt to apply cloud solution.

The second opportunity is the simplification of IT department. Apart from many of the companies in IT industry, IT department have caused lots of additional complication into business circle and human management. For example, implementing new technology requires certain number of IT professionals to maintain and ensure the update. Using cloud computing resemble outsourcing in IT solution. This directly leads to the simplification in IT employees and ensures the instantaneity in software version.

The third advantage is the flexibility in organization given the application of cloud computing. Cloud solution allows IT department to customize the service in accordance to the actual demand. This reflects on the on demand characteristics of cloud computing. Convenient access to adjust IT resources will be provided. The merit eliminates the problem of low utilization ratio. Moreover, the pay per use enables users to cut down dissipation in underused infrastructure.

Despite of the many opportunities that result from the implementation of cloud computing. The principles of cloud computing are based on the Internet connection. This mechanism results in the potential risks that are underlying and unable to eliminate. Researchers focus on the field of cloud computing have conducted researches and surveys to identify the latent threats.

Jodie Lobana proposed four points of risks in Board Bulletin Cloud Computing for Not for Profit Organizations. They are loss of data or access, data privacy and security, cost control and contractual terms.  Data loss refers to the availability of data. Once applying cloud computing, data no longer exists within internal systems. Enterprise operators access to the cloud and retrieve data via Internet connection. The acquirement of data requires excellent cyber speed and therefore may contaminate the accuracy and timeliness of data obtaining. On the other hand, the data exchange will lead to the privacy and security of data. Data leakage and theft can be considered as the biggest problem. The transmission process provides possibility to damage the data confidentiality. Worst thing is that cloud providers maybe users to another vendor and therefore increases the risks of data leakage. Cost control mentions one of the most important potential risks. The low cost of cloud computing solutions attracts the attention of many enterprises. However, to set up the cloud environment, current IT environment and strict cost control supervision must capture the attention of IT manager. The final risk is from the cloud service providers. Part of the reasons result in data privacy and security comes from providers lacking of contractual spirit. However, certain contractual terms need to take into deep consideration.

Cloud computing is a two sided sword which brings opportunities and risks at the same time. Technology of cloud brings tremendous advantages both strategically and operationally. The temptation has driven many companies to purchase cloud services from various vendors. However, looking backwards on the cloud computing, potential risks should be identified and avoided.

3. Data Insecurity Accidents

With the dramatically increasing number of enterprises which implement cloud solutions within the organization, severe accidents have happened because of negative risks management. Quite a few failure in cloud computing has compelled management team to ponder on the potential risks behind the temptation.

A quintessential example should be cited that Amazon cloud collapsed in the year of 2011.Quora, founded in 2009, is a question-and-answer website. It is a platform for users to share their confusion and knowledge. Users in Quora can gain reciprocity by asking questions and answering others’ queries. To support the colossal volumes of data generated every day, Quora chose Amazon EC2 as cloud vendor. Amazon EC2, also known as Elastic Compute Cloud, rents virtual IT infrastructure to run users’ own applications. On April 21, 2011, Amazon cloud outage had caused failure to access Quora .Quora uses AWS (Amazon Web Services) for web hosting. That is to say, Quora purchased Amazon cloud services and stored the data on cloud storage. AWS failure occurred on that day which directly led to the downtime for several hours. Actually, the outage happened so abruptly that the users even did not have the time to take action in response. After recovering from the outage, enormous Quora users found some of the data missing. According to an announcement by Amazon, a slice of data was forever lost because of the failure. Aside of Quora, Foursquare, Reddit and Hootsuite had suffered the same outage. These websites all deploy Amazon cloud storage programs. Seems Amazon was the only sinner to be blamed. However, taking a deep contemplation into this outage, the lack of risks management in those victim companies should be taken into consideration.

Another famous data leakage is the PSN outage in the same year. Sony is eminent Japanese electronics company. The business for electronic games has gain great deal of the profit for Sony. In 2011, PlayStation Network was under attack and resulted in leaking users’ information. The cost for this leakage was estimated to be top $24 billion. This event has arose the panic towards cloud storage.

These two examples indicate that cloud computing is not as safe as it is claimed by cloud vendor. Once the potential risks emerge, tremendous loss may be identified in both the company and individual. For individuals, there is an example that can be cited. The iCloud leak of celebrity photos has caused emotional and physical damages upon victims. And definitely, Apple will be censured for its slack protection.

4. Recommendations for Risk Management

As can be inferred from the above massive outage in history, risk management must be conducted to ensure smooth operation under cloud environment. In order to maximize the value while managing risk in cloud computing, IT managers must take fully participation and make optimal decision.

The risk management can begin with the initiate of cloud solutions. This can be called as migrating to cloud.  The first yet significant question for IT managers to consider is whether to introduce cloud into current organization. Continue using current traditional IT systems or switch to using cloud solutions is not a simple question to answer. Evaluation on both of the two choices must be conducted for comparison. This process needs evolvement of other department. Introducing cloud technology into business circle is strategically important for every business group in the company. Mangers should gather and give advice and analysis on the transformation. IT managers ought to take deep understanding on cloud technology and study its potential risks. They can blueprint the consequences and benefits brought by cloud computing. At the end, managers from different department must decide together whether it is the wisest choice for current environment. The first step is to make choice in the dilemma and then one cloud computing solutions provider must be chosen as cloud vendor within the organization. It is a commonly acknowledged truth that choosing a cloud provider is a complicated matter. An evaluation module must be devised to estimate the performance of vendors. Historical failure, the payment for services, IT infrastructure can be listed as the potential factors that exert influence on future performance. IT managers should utilize their resources to exploit the value of every candidate vendor. Any preference and organization culture should be considered. The final step is to ensure smooth switch to cloud environment. Proper training should be seriously considered.

Now, the program can move to the next stage. To assure data privacy and security, IT managers should take measures to avoid its occurrence. Sucheta Arora has discussed the issues in Cloud Computing: Risks and Security Issues. The first method to avoid data misuse is to encrypt the data. If one company store their internal data in third party cloud vendor, staff should consider encrypt the data. By achieving the encryption, data is no longer crystal clear for outsiders. Even if data is breached, they will not be able to gain the original data easily without the cipher code. Data access control is another way to prevent data theft. By authorizing access to certain group of internal staff, data can be relatively secure than expose to public without any jurisdiction control. Traffic hijacking and hacking is exerted to the Internet all the time which has led to the insecure cyber environment. It is confirmed that most of the data theft happens while transmitting data. In order to ensure the data safety, company can protect the confidential data during data transmission. Obtaining this goal, one safest way is to preserve the classified data internally instead of third party storage. Confidential data remains within internal IT systems. This can assure the security of internal secret because data does not expose to the public and therefore reduce the risk of being breached. In addition, companies can back up some of the important data in internal database. Once cloud outage occurs, internal data will come in handy. It is also a vital mechanism to prevent confidential data from data loss.Last but not least, build up danger detection system to monitor the status of cloud environment. Data privacy and security issues always exist a pattern or a warning. Detection systems can be conducted to monitor the data transmission. When something unusual happens, the system will automatically alert internal staff to take further action.

All the prevention methods mentioned above have put forward higher requirements on the ability and sensibility of IT managers. They should be able to conduct an entire risk management system in order to refrain from data insecurity. The story of West Jet has proposed a good model for reference. Confronted with the transformation within IT department, the new CIO Smith proposed a serial of practices to enhance the performance of the department. She suggested that IT department should align with business units for moving to the next level. She presented new structure of IT department. It recommended setting up onsite CIO in every business unit to better understand the business logic and ensure the performance of IT systems. This is proven a reasonable and sensible way to keep alignment with business. Cloud computing can be viewed as a special type of IT outsourcing. To manage IT outsourcing, several scholars had introduced “long-tail” strategy. They indicated that long-tail theory could be conducted to leverage operations in IT outsourcing.

5. Governmental and Private Sector Readiness

Enormous risks have been spotted in cloud computing. An increasing number of companies have deployed cloud solutions, even government. According to the press, Australia, USA and British governments have already mandated internal data in cloud. Standardization is urgently required.

Several private sectors have launched programs to unify the terms and regulations. Cloud Security Alliance, founded in 2009, is one of the most authoritative organizations in the field of cloud computing. CSA focuses on cloud security standardization. Its staff published the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The NIST initiated the program recently and drafted documents to the public. They proposed guidelines for both cloud users and vendors. Now, the draft posts on their official website and seeks for opinion from public. OASIS is a non-profit organization which dedicates on the promotion of global information society. It is influential in the field of software development by issuing standardization on XML and Web Services. Now, OASIS has released documents for cloud computing model, configuration file and extension standard.

Governmental forum and activities also ignite the passion for cloud solutions in governmental usage.USA is the earliest country that introduced cloud computing into governmental application. On December 9, 2009, the Chief Information Officer, VivekKundra issued an important policy to implement cloud solutions in Federal technology management. The document concerned about the decision called25 Point Implementation Plan to Reform Federal Information Technology Management. The policy aimed at cutting down budget in governmental operation and improving efficiency. It is thrilling to be notified that the government has the innovative spirit to embrace new technologies. After historical initiative in America, UK started G-Cloud program. G-Cloud serves to simplify procurement issues in departments of the United Kingdom Government.

As can be inferred from the above examples, cloud computing has become prevalent for both business usage and governmental usage. Non-profit organizations in IT industry have set up serials of standardization to standardize the implementation of cloud computing. Government already realized that cloud computing can be a powerful weapon to help reducing massive budget and expenses. Several cases are introduced to convey the passion towards cloud computing.

6. Future of Cloud Computing

Having been recognized as the most innovative technology in the globe, cloud computing has reshaped the world is a fact that beyond questions. In the second quarter of year 2015, Amazon defeated Walmart in market values and became the world’s biggest retailing company. In fact, Amazon has accomplished the increase in worth by taking its lead in cloud computing services. Consequently, cloud computing has been identified as the most promising industry in the future. The future prospect for cloud computing is anticipated to be glorious. However, several extremely serious data leakage accidents and service collapse have belled the alarm for those companies which want to deploy cloud solutions.

In the future, cloud computing will be more prosperous and influential than today. The global cloud computing market is expected to reach $270 billion in 2020.  The remarkably prospective market potential certainly will attract the spotlight of the investment and entrepreneurs. Hence, an increasing number of companies will start initiate their business by providing cloud services to the public. With regard to companies that want to deploy cloud solutions, it is also estimated to be increase. Cloud computing has infiltrated into a multitude of aspects of IT services. IT infrastructure outsourcing is one of the most prevalent patterns to operate IT department. As a result, cloud computing has become a preferential option if a company wants to conduct IT reformation into organization. From the perspective of scientific research, cloud computing is still one of the most popular topics. Virtualization, distributed processing technology and parallel computing consist of the most technology in cloud development. These technologies will be continually gaining unyielding attention.

In conclusion, the outstanding future upon cloud computing will continue to thrive. Cloud computing is anticipated to be popular in the field of both commercial business and scientific research. Contrarily, the massive data leakage weakens companies’ passion towards cloud services. The reality forces cloud providers to enhance their security technologies. What is encouraging is that companies will conduct evaluation instead of using cloud services straightforward.

7. Personal Reflections

As one of the most favorite technology that is available in the IT market, cloud computing has been the most favorite information technology solution. For the users’ point of view, cloud computing refers to the services on shared IT infrastructure or applications.

Cloud computing will benefit the companies greatly in some aspects. They tend to perceive profits from the saving of the cost comparing with traditional operation in IT department. Moreover, the reformation of information technology and data process has reshaped the business circle. Nevertheless, damage will be caused if no further actions taken to avoid the risks. Data loss and data security are the top two concerns that will put users’ data into insecurity status. On the other hand, the reliability of cloud providers also been brought into public notification. Despite of the risks, enterprises can make fully utilize on this advanced technology by conducting proper measure.

It is a truth that universally acknowledged, one coin would flip over if it is used inappropriate. Overall, implementing cloud solutions will benefit users in many of aspects. However, ignoring the potential will damage the profitability on other sides of business. Although the potential risks cannot be eliminate entirely, IT managers can take actions to avoid or minimize the failure in cloud solutions. Before deploying cloud solutions, investigation should be conducted to verify the opportunities and threats that may occur. Managers should weigh on the two contrary sides and decide whether it is best to apply cloud computing. If the answer is positive, select the most reliable and suitable cloud providers will be the first yet vital step. However, potential risks will still remain after successfully deploy clouds. Failure and damage detection systems should be developed to avoid data security. What can be done to minimize the cost for data leakage? The question should be deeply pondered before actual loss appears.

8. Conclusion

The market of cloud computing is anticipated to be increasingly grow within the next five years. There will be incremental demand on the cloud solutions. Numerous researchers and scientists have taken deep study into the efficient and secure way to implement cloud computing. The glorious future of cloud computing will certainly attracts attention of thousands of companies. This newly developed technology possesses lots of advantages that are tempting. However, the technology itself is a two-sided sword that may lead companies into dilemma if they do not pay attention to the potential risks. Several cases are presented in this research. They are concern about the scandals caused by the failure in cloud solutions. The lesson must be learned by IT managers in companies which have considered conducting cloud computing. Methods to avoid or prevent the cyber risk are provided to further discuss the risk management in cloud background. Fully exploiting the opportunities and avoiding the underlying threats of cloud computing has become a challenge for managers in IT department. A fact that is commonly acknowledge is that to keep up the pace of technology updates, many companies implement cloud solution without conducting any further research within the organization. Valuation mechanism is recommended for IT managers to design what is the best-fitted solution for current internal environment. It is worth mentioning that governments around the globe have set up plans to introduce cloud technology into governance. Many countries already initiated programs to conduct the implementation. The prosperity of cloud computing industry will continue to thrive in the future. With the further research on cloud algorithms, the technology itself will be improved undoubtedly. (Total words: 3665)

9. Reference

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[2] MichaelArmbrust. A View of Cloud Computing[J]. Communications of the ACM, 2010, 54(4): 50-58

[3] NathalieBrender, IliyaMarkov. Risk perception and risk management in cloud computing: Results from a case study of Swiss companies[J]. International Journal of Information Management, 2013, 33(5): 726-733

[4] SuchetaArora. Cloud Computing: Risks and Security Issues[J]. ORIENTAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 2012, 5(2): 327-332

[5] AdrianBaldwin, DavidPym, SimonShiu. Enterprise Information Risk Management: Dealing with Cloud Computing[EB/OL]. http://xueshu.baidu.com/s?wd=paperuri%3A%28eb1f8a0a80917359e6e8807393f63cce%29&filter=sc_long_sign&tn=SE_xueshusource_2kduw22v&sc_vurl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2F10.1007%2F978-1-4471-4189-1_8&ie=utf-8&sc_us=17382636823566751616.

[6] ShilpashreeSrinivasamurthy, David Q. Liu. Survey onCloud Computing Security – Technical Report[Z]. Departmentof Computer Science, Indiana University Purdue UniversityFort Wayne, July 2010.

[7] JodieLobana. Board Bulletin: Cloud Computing for Not-for-Profit Organizations[Z]. Canada: Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada,2013.

[8] NingSu, NataliaLevina, JeanneWRoss. The Long-Tail Strategy for IT Outsourcing[J]. MITSloan Management Review, 2016, 57(2): 81-89

[9] MalcolmCMunro, SharazKhan. WESTJET AIRLINES: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE STRATEGY[N]. Ivey Publishing, 2013-7-24.

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[13] Joe Silverman. Amazon cloud collapse – is cloud computing reliable? – cloud service[EB/OL]. http://www.newyorkcomputerhelp.com/blog/2011/04/23/amazon-cloud-collapse-is-cloud-computing-reliable-cloud-service/, 2011-4-23.

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[16] Wikipedia. UK Government G-Cloud[EB/OL]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_Government_G-Cloud.

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