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美国作业代写:Vertical Analysis on Salary Level of Education Sector in China

2017-06-30 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Vertical Analysis on Salary Level of Education Sector in China,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了我国教育行业的薪酬水平。自改革开放以来,教育部门的工资水平一直在提升。但是,在扣除教师工资对物价水平的影响后,增长程度还是相对较低;在国民经济各部门中,教师的工资水平是低于平均数的。因此,建议给教师安排合理的薪级和加薪机制,进行绩效薪酬改革,以更多、更好的工作为目标,提高教师的工资水平,吸引和保持教师资源的质量,保障教育事业的稳定和长期发展。

Education Sector,教育行业,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Abstract

In this paper, statistical data from 1978 to 2011 are used to analyze the absolute and relative levels and their changes of teachers’ salaries in China in the past. The absolute change of salary in education sector is reflected by analyzing changes in annual average salary and salary index of teachers. The relative change of salary in education sector is reflected by deducting the change of price level. The relative level of teachers’ salaries in China is reflected by comparing teachers’ salaries with salaries in other sectors and with GNP per capita. The results show that the absolute salary level in education sector has been on rise since the reform and opening-up policy was adopted, and that the speed of rise has been accelerated since 1993. However, the increasing degree is relatively low after deducting the influence of price level from teachers’ salaries; the level of teachers’ salaries ranks no higher than average among various sectors of national economy; and the ratio of teachers’ salaries and GNP per capita is far less than the reasonable level. Therefore, suggestions are that the transfer payment of the central government for personal funds should be increased and its overall planning at provincial level should be strengthened, that a reasonable salary bracket and pay rise mechanism for teachers should be arranged, and that the performance pay reform should aim at more pay for more and better work, so as to increase the level of teachers’ salaries, to attract and maintain quality teacher resources, and to safeguard a stable and prolonged development of the cause of education.

Key Words: education sector; teachers’ salaries; salary index

Introduction

An education plan should be teacher oriented and teachers play an irreplaceable role in education reform and cultivating people. Since the late 1980s, a series of studies have proved that schools, especially teachers, should be regarded as important factor affecting the student development. Therefore, a team of high-qualified teachers is required to be built for guaranteeing the high-quality development of education. To build a team of high-qualified teachers, adequacy and stability of teacher recruitment and good salary treatment is one of the policies to attract and maintain qualified teachers. This paper focuses on the salary level of teachers and to demonstrate from the vertical angle the absolute and relative change of teachers’ salary level since the reform and open-up policy was adopted. The measurement on the absolute level of teachers’ salaries has reflected the changing tendency of teachers’ salary level in China on the whole. The analysis on the change of relative level of teachers’ salary reveals the changing degree of the level of teachers’ salary. Based on the above analysis, rational evaluation has been made on the level of teachers’ salary in China and suggestions has been put forward to perfect the policy of teachers’ salaries.

Literature View

1. Analysis on the absolute change of salary in education sector

1.1 The absolute change of salary in education sector

The absolute level of average salary in education sector has been on rise for three decades since the reform and opening-up policy was adopted. To divide this period into two parts that each consists of 15 years, the growth rate from 1978 to 1993 is rather low, while the rate speeds up since 1994. The average salary in education sector in 1993 is six times more than that in 1978, but it is 11.9 times that the 2010 average salary in education sector is more than that in 1993. (Statistics from China Statistical Yearbook 1978-2011)

1.2 The relative change of salary in education sector

The average salary index objectively reflects the change of average salary in education sector. The index is over 1 every year from 1979 to 2010, which indicates that the average salary in education sector has been increasing every year since 1978. The figure of average salary index reflects how quickly the salary arises and the range of increasing speed of salary is from 2% to 50%. Among all these year, the following years shows faster increasing speed of salary: 1985 with 26.74%, 1988 with 23.99%, 1994 with 50.18% and 2007 with 23.79%. (Statistics from China Statistical Yearbook 1978-2011)

In 1985, Regulations on Implementation of Reform of Salary System for Staff Working in State Organs and Public Institutions has started the second large-scale salary system reform since the establishment of our country, which regulates that structural salary system is adopted in state organs and public institutions. Soon afterwards, a Notice on Reform of Staff Salary System in Colleges and Universities, Secondary Specialized Schools and Middle and Primary Schools (Document Serial Number: 1985 No.40 Labour Personnel Salary) jointly published by Salary Reform Group and Labor Personnel Department of the State Council, put forward that structural salary system with official post pay as the main part should be practiced among the teaching and administrative staff. According to the Notice, the structural salary consists of four parts: basic pay, post pay, seniority pay and bonus pay. Seniority subsidy should also be practiced among teachers. The salary level of teachers was significantly promoted.

In 1987, in order to improve the living treatment of teachers in middle and primary schools and to promote the development of basic education, a Notice on Improvement of Salary Treatment among Teachers in Middle and Primary Schools was published by the State Council. The Notice required that the current salary standard for teachers in middle and primary schools and teachers in kindergartens should be improved 10% stating from October 1987.

In 1993, Notice on Reform of Salary System among Staff in State Organs and Public Institutions and Notice on Printing the Three Implementing Measurements in Reform of Salary System in State Organs and Public Institutions were published subsequently by the State Council, which started the classified reform of state organs and public institutions. It was the third significant reform of salary system since the establishment of our country. The increasing scale of salary regulated in this reform is the biggest among several reforms of salary system in the past and it was the greatest effort made by our government under the situation of financial stress.

In 2006, the fourth reform of salary system was started. A Notice on Printing the Reform Plans of Income Distribution System among Staff in Public Institutions (Document Serial Number: 2006 No.56 State Human Resourcing Publishing) was published by Human Resource Department of State Council and decided that position performance pay system should be implemented successively in public institutions. According to the Implementing Measurements on Reform of Income Distribution System among Staff in Public Institutions (Document Serial Number: 2006 No.59 State Human Resourcing Publishing), position pay and rank salary standard among teachers in middle and primary school and nurses should be improved 10%. To some extent, this reform of salary system has raised the level of teachers’ salaries and brought great change in middle and primary schools, especially the schools for compulsory education.

It is shown from the comparison between every province and direct-controlled municipalities that in 2002, Shanghai City had the highest level of salary in education sector, which is 2.35 times higher than that in Gansu Province, which also had the lowest level of salary. That is to say that when engaging in the same educational job, the teachers’ salaries in Shanghai City is twice as much as that in Gansu Province. It also reflects that there were huge differences of teachers’ salaries in different provinces and direct-controlled municipalities even under the situation of overall low salary level in education sector.

Method

1.    Relative change of salary level in education sector

The analysis on the change of growth in teachers’ salaries by using the annual absolute data cannot truly reflect whether the level of teachers’ income and living standard have been correspondingly improved, as the analysis did not take the change of economic environment and the change in price level into account. This paper will demonstrate the actual change of teachers’ salaries by comparing the level of salaries in education sector with that in other sectors of national economy, comparing the increasing rate of teachers’ salaries with the growth rate of economy and comparing the increasing rate of teachers’ salaries with the price change.

1.1  Actual salary after deducting the change of price level

Average actual salary index refers to the staff average salary which is the outcome of deducting the factors of price change from the staff average actual salary. The staff average actual salary index reflects the relative figures of change of actual salary, which indicates the increasing or decreasing degree of the level of staff actual salary. The formulas of the said two indexes are listed as follows:

From 1989 to 2008, the average salary index of 1989 and 1995 is less than 1. This indicates that the change of teachers’ actual salary in the above two years was negative, which means the teachers’ actual salary was decreasing. To study the changing scale in other years, it illustrates that the average actual salary indexes in 1994, 2001 and 2007 respectively are the highest, which also implies that the teachers’ actual salaries were increasing at the fastest speed and with the largest scale. The range of change of average actual salary index over the past 20 years is from 9% to 21%, which is smaller than the average salary index ranging from 2% to 50%. From the above-mentioned data, the change of the level of teachers’ salaries over the recent years is on rise, but excluding the influence of price level, the increasing of the actual salary in education sector is at low rate and of small range.

1.2  Comparison between the salary level in education sector and that in other sectors in national economy

By comparing the average salary in education sector and the average salary in other sectors over the years, it is discovered that salary in education sector in most of the years from 1978 to 1998 is lower than social average salary and the largest gap between the said two types of salary is in 1978. Since 1999, the average salary in education sector is higher than social average salary, but the proportion of the exceeding is not large. The exceeding proportion of average salary in education sector higher than that in other social sectors is not increasing until 2007, i.e. three years after the fourth reform of salary system. Compared with social average salary, it is revealed that, since the reform and opening-up policy was adopted, the relative salary level in education sector is on rise generally and has exceeded the social average salary level in recent years. However, over the years of growth, the average salary in education sector is only equal to the social average salary and the income level in education sector is not corresponding to the amount of human capital accumulated by the educational practitioners. The income level in education sector needs to be improved further.

According to the ranking situation of the salary level in education sector among every sector in national economy, it fluctuates strongly before 1995. The lowest level of salary in education ranked at 13% in the lower part of the whole national economy, while the highest level was once ranked at 50% in the first part. After 1995, the position of salary level in education sector is rather stable, ranking at around 20% to 40% in the lower part. After 2008, the ranking of the salary level in education sector among every sector in national economy is improved, but still behind 50%. Therefore, as a whole, the average salary level in education sector is still low and has been ranking at the lower part over the three decades. The status of education sector is long-term low in national economy.

1.3  Comparison between Teachers’ Salary Level and National Economic Development Index (GNP per capita)

GNP per capita reflects the development level of a national economy. In the past 30 years from 1978 to 2008, the average salary in education sector has always been higher than GNP per capita. The ratio of education sector and the GNP per capita has experienced a tendency of first drop but then rising and now gentle fluctuation. The peak time was in 1982 with ratio of 1.54 and the bottom time was in 1996 and 1997 with ration of 1.05. Since 2004, the ratio has been around

QU Heng-chang (1995) adopted the comparison method in studying the teachers’ income in China and he put forward that the ratio of teachers’ salary and GDP per capita in developing countries should be ranged from 2.5:1 to 3.5:1. As the team of teachers with the above ratio in South Korea and Malaysia tends to be stable and of high quality, the said ratio should be considered as reasonable, and so as to decide the reasonable scope of relative income of teachers in China, that is to say, the ratio of teachers’ income and GDP per capita should be ranged from 2.5: 1 to 3.5:1. According to the conclusion of Mr. QU Heng-chang, teachers’ salary in China needs to be significantly increased, aiming to guarantee a stable team of teachers with high quality.

The salary level in education sector is far less than the reasonable level from the national point of view. Due to the vast territory of our country and the larger differences in economic development among different region in our country, the level of teachers’ salaries varies significantly among different provinces. In 2010, the ratio of salary level in education sector and GNP per capita in all provinces in China ranges from 0.99 to 2.33. The highest ratio of annual average salary in education sector and GNP per capita is in Shanghai City, but its ratio is less than the reasonable level. The lowest radio is in Gansu Province and the annual average salary was even lower than GNP per capita. The ratios of annual average salary in education sector and GNP per capita in 11 provinces, including An Hui Province, ranged from 1.0 to 1.1; The ratios of annual average salary in education sector and GNP per capita in 17 provinces, including Tibet, ranged from 1.1 to 2.0; The said ratio reached 2 and more in only 4 provinces and direct-controlled municipality, including Shanghai City. Generally speaking, the salary level in education sector is low in China.

Summary

The currency income or non-currency income is the symbol of its competitiveness in teaching occupation and the teachers’ salary is one of the important factors in affecting the supply-demand relationship in teachers’ labor market. The teachers’ salary significantly affects the decision made for teaching occupational choice (Murnane, Olsen, 1990). Reasonable and competitive salary level help to, on the one hand, maintain quality teachers to continue to work as a teacher; on the other hand, attract excellent college graduates to choose the teaching occupation and even attract high school graduate to study in teacher training college. The study of Murnane in 1988 has proved that teachers’ salaries has significant effect in attracting job seekers to take teaching occupation and in persisting in teaching at the beginning stage. Additionally, the initial salary has more effect in the choice of teaching occupation than the future interest (Hamilton Lankford, James Wyckoff, 1997).

The analysis on the absolute change of salary level in education sector in China has demonstrated that the average salary level in education sector has gained continual increase since 1978, with low increasing rate before 1993 but rapid increasing rate after 1993. The change of average salary index reflects the increasing rate of annual average salary in education sector ranges from 2% to 50%. Taking the reform of salary system as an opportunity, the average salary in 1985, 1994 and 2007 gained rapid and large-scale increase. However, there is relatively large gap of teachers’ salaries among different provinces.

In most of the years after 1978, the salary level in education sector was lower than social average salary. After 1999, the average salary in education sector keeps above the level of social average salary, but the exceeding proportion is not large. Over the years, the ranking of average salary in education sector among other sectors in national economy is in the lower 50% part, which is the below average level. The ratio of salary level in education sector and GNP per capita fluctuates around 1.3 since 2004, but far less than the reasonable level of 2.5 to 3.5 (QU Heng-chang, 1995).

It is indicated that at this stage, the level of teachers’ salaries is not high and the increasing rate of teachers’ salaries is too slow. A rather large scale of increase on the teachers’ salaries is required so as to reach the reasonable level of teachers’ salaries.

Conclusion

Focusing on the situation of the level of teachers’ salaries at the present stage, suggestions are put forward to attract and maintain quality teachers for long-term teaching:

1. To strengthen the source of funds and to fully plan the management of funds

The burden of teachers’ salaries needs to be supported by adequate funds and the proportion of personal funds with teachers’ salaries included in education funds is over 50%. It is of hope that the proportion of educational funds expenditure in GDP reaches 4%, which guarantees the input and increase of educational funds on the whole.

The financial system of local government responsibility, hierarchical management and county orientation was established in 1999. The teachers’ salary in public school is burdened by county-level finance. Due to the unbalanced level of economic development in China, there are differences of fiscal capacity among different regional governments, which leads to low level of teachers’ salaries nationwide or especially in certain province, and leads to huge differences in the level of teachers’ salaries among provinces. Suggestion is that central and provincial government should provide support to solve the problem of adequate educational funds and to implement transfer payment by region and by proportion in accordance with the regional economic development level and based on county as a unit. Overall planning on the funds should be carefully made by provincial government. It is differentially supportive for each county or district to increase educational funds for raising the level of teachers’ salaries in accordance with the actual situation, so as to narrow down the differences in the level of provincial teachers’ salaries.

2. To perfect the mechanism of salary growth

The increasing rate of teachers’ actual salary is low and the rate is even lower than that of GDP, therefore, it is difficult for the ratio of teachers’ salaries and GDP per capita to reach the reasonable level. Reasonable mechanism on salary growth should be designed so as to guarantee the rapid growth of teachers’ salaries and to reach the reasonable level. The growth of teachers’ salaries includes normal raise of salary and job-grade-oriented raise of salary. The normal raise of salary means that the increasing of salary is brought about by the increase of price level and the working experience. The job-grade-oriented raise of salary refers to the increasing of salary brought about due to the promotion of job grade under the system of job salary. At the present stage, the job-performance based payment system is adopted in China and only pay-grade salary could be increased. Due to the poor design on the growth mechanism of teachers’ salaries, the increasing rate of teachers’ salaries is low under the job-performance based payment system.

Suggestion regarding this situation is put forward in two aspects. On the one hand, to improve the level of normal raise of salary and to design the scale for teachers’ salary growth by comprehensively considering the price level and economic development. To combine the growth rate of teachers’ salaries, the increasing rate of the price level index and the growth rate of GDP. The annual natural growth rate of teachers’ salaries should take the change of the price level index and the increasing rate of GDP into account, so as to make rapid growth under the circumstance of guaranteeing the increase of the teachers’ actual salary and to reach the reasonable ratio scale of teachers’ salary and GDP per capita. On the other hand, add differences in the basic salary of different levels of teachers to the job-performance based payment system in order to ensure certain scale of increase in salary when the post is promoted. Additionally, as teachers are regarded as professionals, there are 13 post grades and 65 pay grades. By decreasing the number of grades in pay-grade salary and to enlarge the salary differentials of different pay grades, the level of salary growth will be brought about when improving the pay grade of teachers.

Reference

1. Richard J. Murnane, Judith D. Singer & John B. Willett. The Career Paths of Teachers: Implications for Teacher Supplier and Methodological Lessons for Research [J]. Educational Researcher, 1988, 17 (6):22.

2. Richard J. Murname & Randall J. Olsen. The Effects of Salaries and Opportunity Costs on Length of Stay in Teaching: Evidence from North Carolina [J]. The Journal of Human Resoures, 1990, 25 (1): 106.

3. Hamilton Lankford & James Wychoff. The changing structure of teacher compensation, 1970-94 [J]. Economics of Education Review, 1997, 16 (4): 371.

4. QU Heng-Chang, Questions on Income of Middle and Primary Schools in China [J]. Higher Education Research for Teacher Training, 1995, (3): 48-55

5. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Compiled by. China Statistical Yearbook (1978-2011), Beijing: China Statistics Press

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