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美国作业代写:Chenghua Chicken Cup

2017-06-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Chenghua Chicken Cup,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了成化斗彩鸡缸杯。成化斗彩鸡缸杯是中国传统陶瓷中的艺术珍品,属于明代成化皇帝的御用酒杯。成化斗彩鸡缸杯的外壁画着公鸡、母鸡、小鸡、蜈蚣和牡丹,画面形象生动,情趣盎然。自明朝以来,成化斗彩鸡缸杯一直被认为是无价之宝。1980年和1999被拍卖的成化斗彩鸡缸杯,都创下了中国瓷器的世界纪录。

Chenghua Chicken Cup,成化斗彩鸡缸杯,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Dou Cai Chicken Cup, created in Chenghua period(AD1465-1487) of Ming Dynasty. The term ‘chicken cup’, which denotes a tiny eight cetimeter diametral porcelain wine cup painted with cocks, hens, chicks and peony. It was a drinking appliance that fired in Jingdezhen imperial kiln and used for palace only. Only 19 are now known to exist, and four of those are in private hands, with the rest in Beijing Palace Museum and Taipei Palace Museum collections.

Doucai, invented during Xuande period, has another name---clashing color. Its color is formed after combining two decorative china: underglaze blue-and-white and overglaze decoration. The contour of the pattern is to be painted beforehand on the blue-and-white base with some portion filling with blue-and-white as well. It is later put into the kiln and become blue-and-white porcelain after firing. Then paints of different colors are to fill the blank of the former roughly painted pattern. After this, it is tempered in the kiln of a low-temperature , which is roughly 800 degrees Celsius.  As the name suggests, "Doucai” means a competition for color in English, which refers to the competition  of underglaze blue-and-white and the overglaze decoration. And the Doucai Chicken Cup is regarded as premier product of kiln .

According to the history book, Wan Guifei very likes porcelains, especially the Chicken Cup. Emperor of Chenghua orders a large amount of Chicken Cups to please her. Who is WanGuifei?  She is one of the concubines of Chenghua. However she is different from other concubines even the Empress. Wan is the most irreplaceable woman for Chenghua although she is seventeen years older than him. She was just a maid many years ago, not a descendant of an eminent family. Emperor Chenghua has a very tragic childhood. Because of the fight for throne, only two-year-old Chenghua will be killed anytime. The nineteen-year-old Maid Wan was assigned to take care of this kid. Whatever what happened outside, they live on each other, never separate. Maid Wan is Chenghua’s mother, sister, friend, and the most dependent woman. They are the one. After Chenghua be enthroned, he married Wan and willing to do anything to let her happy, includes order big amount of porcelains. This is one of the reasons that why the procelain manufacture during Ming Dynasty is the best.

The reason why the cups are painted chicken pattern, there are a variety of claims from ancient times. Some say that Emperor of Chenghua loves painting and calligraphy very much. Once he was appreciating a Song Dynasty painting "hen map", touches by the warm scene with the hens and chicks foraging. Then he writes a poem on the painting to express emotion. Maybe because of this, the Chenghua emperor makes Doucai Chicken Cup. Other says that the pronunciation of Chicken is similar to auspicious. Because the Chenghua Chicken Cup is popular among the upper class and literatis, the price of it also pushes very high. According to the Mingzong Shilu, “When Shenzong eating, there is a couple of Chicken Cups in front of him, they are a hundred thousand gold value.” According to the Taoshuo “Doucai is the best of Chenghua kiln, Chicken Cup is the best of drinking cup.”

The underglaze of Chicken Cup is Pingdengqing. This material divides to strong and elegant color and also has two methods to refine. The Book of Jiangxi Dazhi in the period of Jiajing records the process of refining the color. “The most of Chenghua blue and white is elegant and beautiful, they are refined by Taoqing method. They are matched with imported Masuliqing and Potangqing, crush the ingredents, mix by the water, absorb the iron impurities with a magnet, Precipitate the mixed starch, then can get five qian(unit of weight of Ancient China) blue and white color per 500 grams. The quality of blue and white color depends on the ratio of water and the temperature of the kiln.

Emperor of Chenghua used Chenghua Doucai Chicken Cup as the drinking cup. Doucai Chicken Cup has strict requirement of firing, so its production is small, and among them the good one will be used by the royal, with others destroyed. Thus, few Chicken Cups exist now. Nicholas Chow, an expert in Chinese ceramics remarks that during 15th-century or the Chenghua era when the emperor of Ming dynasty ruled, Chenghua porcelains were representing top products and compares Chenghua porcelains to silk. At that time, there was quality control in imperial kilns.

The chicken cup has been regarded as priceless since the Ming Dynasty. Chicken Cup was auctioned in 1980 and 1999, both set the world record of Chinese porcelain. Similar in Hongkong 1999 Sotheby’s sold 29 million 170 thousand Hong Kong dollars, set the world auction record Chinese porcelain. In April 8, 2014, Sotheby's Hongkong held an important Chinese porcelain and crafts spring auction, Meiyintang’s collection, Chenghua chicken cup which valued at HK $200-300 million has became the focus of this auction. The Chenghua chicken cup evaluated as the most expensive Chinese ancient porcelain auction.

The Chicken Cup was collected early by London collector Mrs. Leopold Dreyfus in the last century in 50s, then has been collected by Meiyintang. After eight rounds bidding, the winning bid was HK $281 million and 240 thousand, the buyer was Shanghai collector Yiqian Liu. The high price is also how I started to notice Chicken Cup.

Fig.2                                  Fig.3

The patterns of chicken cups are most widespread in China, and some even suspects the authenticity of Chenghua Chicken Cups in museums. Julian Thompson once Sotheby's Chairman assumed that two exhibits at the Beijing Palace Museum are not real despite that Beijing Palace Museum declared they are real in 1999. Today, its imitations in Chinese antique markets are just a dozen of yuan a piece. Mr. Chow said that it is so popular in China like Mona Lisa in the west.

Chicken Cup is the peak of the Chinese porcelain. Whateve the color and the manufature tradition, and the most beautiful romatic story.

Bibliography

“Central officials in all ages of Ming Dynasty”. Mingzong Shilu.  Translated by Jing Cao.

Fig.1. “Chicken Cup. Ming Dynasty”. Porcelain. Power point.

Fig.2. “detail of Chicken Cup”. Ming Dynasty. Porcelain. Sothby’s, accessed November 27, 2016: http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/2014/meiyintang-chicken-cup-hk0545.html

Fig.3. “detail of Chicken Cup”. Ming Dynasty. Porcelain. Sothby’s, accessed November 27, 2016: http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/2014/meiyintang-chicken-cup-hk0545.html

Lin, Zong. “Taoshu” in Jiangxi Sheng Dazhi. Translated by Jing Cao.

Tai,Gu. Bowuyaolan. Ming Dynasty.  Translated by Jing Cao.

Zhu, Yan. Taoshuo.  Translated by Jing Cao.

Zhang, Tingyu. The History of Ming.  Translated by Jing Cao.

García Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape, 1988.

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