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美国作业代写:Rome Colosseum VS Bird’s Nest

2017-06-19 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Rome Colosseum VS Birds Nest,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论对比了罗马斗兽场和鸟巢。罗马斗兽场和鸟巢都代表着一个时代的艺术,尽管它们是因为完全不同的原因而建造的。罗马斗兽场的建造是为了让贵族观看角斗士和野兽间的搏斗,以此来娱乐。而鸟巢则是一个体育竞技场,是为奥运会而设计的。毫无疑问,罗马斗兽场是现代体育场的雏形,为现代建筑提供了参考,给现代体育场带来了一个典范。

Rome Colosseum,Bird’s Nest,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Introduction

The design of athletic field is always an eternal topic, from thousands of years ago, until today’s Olympic Games. The passion of human on sports has never been receded, which reflected the sprit and intercity of human life. Designing a perfect stadium is an everlasting topic of architectures and a wish for all sports enthusiasts. A great stadium, is not only a practical space for competition, it is also a piece of art in the architecture history.

Roman Colosseum, which built in nearly 2000 years ago, is now the most famous monument that survived from the classical world (Roman Colosseum,2016). In Roman Empire, people, especially emperors and nobility, enjoying to watch this violent and dangerous sports (Roth. M, 1993). According to BBC’s history of Colosseum, the construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72, and finished in AD 80, and able to cover about 50,000 to 80,000 audience at the same time (BBC's History of the Colosseum, 2006).

In 2008, 29th Olympic Games was held in Beijing, China, and Beijing National Stadium was designed and built for this in 2003, finished in 2008, which costed 428 million dollarsand designed for 100,000 audiences (Barbara D, 2009). It was original designed bySwiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, who wined the bid from more than 30 competitors. Chinese artist Ai Weiwei was the artistic consultantfor this(The National Stadium, 2008). Beijing National Stadiumis known as the Bird's Nest because of the appearance (The National Stadium, 2008). This is a special design and not easy to be built considering the special steel structure. Now, it has becomes one of the most obvious symbol of Beijing city, as well as the landmark of modernarchitecture and located at the south of the Olympic Green, Beijing City (The National Stadium, 2008).

Background research

Although those two buildings are all classic stadium built in different time, all having capacity of 80,000 people, the building performance, material and tectonic are completely not the same.

Several materials used in the construction of Roman Colosseum are including, travertine,tuff, tiles, Roman Cement and lime. Travertine is a limestone in Roman and used for main pillars, the ground floor and the external wall in theColosseum((BBC's History of the Colosseum, 2006). As for the Bird's Nest, however, 42,000 tons of steel were used for the construction (Terence B, 2012). The material used in these two materials reflected the different era and different aesthetic.

As for the design ofRoman Colosseum, it combined three types of column, Doricorder stand column for the first layer, Ionic order for the second and Corinthianorder column for the third floor (Keith H & Mary B, 2011). Three ancient orders of originated in Greece were all used in this classic historical architecture. Regarding to Bird's Nest, a symbol of modern China and modern architecture, it has two independent structures, a red concrete seating bowl inside and steel frame outside (The National Stadium, 2008). The whole outer steel structure depends on 24 trussed columns, which is made of steel Q35, a new steel developed and produced to support the stadium's shell(The National Stadium, 2008). Again, the column and structure difference reflects the two architecture styles.

Both Roman Colosseum and Bird's Nest represent the art of one era, although they were built for totally different reason. Roman Colosseum was built in Rome Empire under the order of Emperor Vespasian (Keith H & Mary B, 2011), for the most popular sports back in that time, which is violent and dangerous. Bird's Nest, although it is also a stadium, was built for completely different reason. In 2008, Olympic Games were built in Beijing, China. To greet the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Beijing decided to build a Beijing national stadium for this international competitions. The design of Bird's Nest was a winner from bid. From more than 30 design works, the design of Bird's Nest was selected.

Although these two stadium, Roman Colosseum and Bird's Nest, are built in completely two different era, and have totally different purpose, there are still something in common. The first real stadium in human history, Roman Colosseum, although it is not integrated now because of earthquake, lightning shocking and fire, it has a great impact on all modern stadium, from different aspects. Meanwhile, the restoration work has begun to better protect the essence of mankind. It is a heritage of Roman Empire, for modern society to admire, to study and to research. Roman Colosseum impact on Bird's Nest cannot be ignored and it can be seen in both structure and details.

The Bird's Nest was finished 2000 years after the Roman Colosseum. Most modern stadium was influenced more or less by Roman Colosseum, as it is the first major stadium ever built by human being (Abby I, 2013). No matter from the appearance, engineering, structure or other points of view, the shadow of Roman Colosseum can be seen in most modern stadium. In terms of Bird’s Nest, like all other stadiums all over the world, there are some similarity in the design.

External structure and appearance

From the common point of view, the design of Bird's Nest was originally fromthe study of Chinese ceramics, like Chinese-style crazed pottery (BBC News, 2005). However, although it has its special design, it still like most modern stadium, has anoval shape from outside, and internally structure is more like a three layers bowl (The National Stadium, 2008). Circle shape is one of the most critical feature of Roman Colosseum. It is a circle from outside and an ellipse shape when overlooked from sky (Abby I, 2013).

Most modern stadium copied this shape. It is not for beauty or for custom factor, and there is a technical reason there. Firstly, circle shape can give audience a better view, especially in an exciting sports game(The National Stadium, 2008). Meanwhile, more seats could be built and more people could be included in the circle shape stadium, especially when comparing to square shape stadium.

Level of seating

Multiple levels of seating can be seen in both Roman Colosseum and Bird's Nest, as well as other modern stadium. Ever a new stadium built, people would think the multiple levels of seating is normal and common. However, this is all from 2000 years ago, the original design of Colosseum. The design of multiple levels have distinct benefits, including more seats, better views and larger space, as well as providing a better atmosphere for shouting and sheers.

However, it is not easy to build a three levels stadium back in Roman time. Columns are widely used in the design of Colosseum for load bearing reason. Doric order, Ionic order and Corinthian order columns are all used in the design for better appearance (Keith H & Mary B, 2011). Again, this is not only a stadium for sports, it is an art of history and a heritage for generation.

Design of entrance

80 arches totally in the Roman Colosseum, four of them are main entrance and the other 76 are designed for access to specific seats. Multiple entrance is absolutely necessary for stadium, especially for the large one. Bird's Nest, as a national stadium, has 12 outer entrance for visitors. More entrances can have a faster entering rate by flow dispersing and convenient for participants, as they can use a separate entrance. In addition, if there is an emergency, multiple entrance will help visitors to escape from the stadium without injured and squeeze.

In addition to the design of entrance, the shape of entrance is also a light spot. Arches are one of the greatest invention anda has a practical application. From the economy point of view, arches can save cost by reducing the use of material. More importantly, the shape of arches can add strength to the wall without excessive weight. This is no doubt the essence of Roman Colosseum, reflected the intelligence of Romans. Millions of modern stadiums copied that arches in the design and it is a heritage in architecture area.

The uniqueness of Bird's Nest

Bird's Nest is named after the appearance of Beijing national stadium, which looks like a Bird's Nest. People may wonder why China uses this shape of stadium for Olympic Games. Nest, a home for birds, it represents the breed of life, as well as hope of human being. During the whole design and construction process, it demonstrated the strength of modern technologies and the greatness of architectural art. Although it has lots of similarity with the Colosseum. It does has its own beauty and uniqueness, from different design, construction and appearance point of view.

Design of Bird’s Nest

The design of Bird’s Nest does has similarly comparing to Colosseum. However, with the development of modern technologies, there are some new improvement in the design. Colosseum is not intact anymore under the damage of fire, earthquake and lightning stroke (Abby I, 2013). The design of Bird’s Nest used new types of material to avoid fire and internally there are an intact fire control system. Meanwhile, advanced analysis was used when designing the stadium, to ensure that Bird’s Nest is strong enough under various earthquake conditions (Arup, 2015). New technologies and modern engineering helped Bird’s Nest in the structure design and made a more solid and stabilized stadium. Fire engine access, multiple toilets internally and the recycled water system demonstrated the brand new era.

Construction of Bird's Nest

The construction of Bird’s Nest is a complicate project in terms of the new technologies and new material used. Special shaped steel structure is the feature of Bird's Nest. Roman Colosseum used the material of Greece era. As a modern art, steel is selected to be the outer structure of the stadium. It is an all welded special shaped steel structure, which is difficult for construction. The stress and strain state is hard to control, which made this a complicated project. The advantage for modern architecture, is that parametric design software can be used, it heavily reduced the design work capacity. The shear wall system is perfectly used in Bird's Nest, the use of Q35 and Q460, two new kinds of steels produced for the construction, demonstrating the development of modern technologies(Keith H & Mary B, 2011).

Appearance of Bird’s Nest

The whole outside appearance of Bird’s Nest is an oval shape, which is similar to Roman Colosseum. However, there are some unique points of Bird’s Nest. From outside view, the whole stadium is a Bird’s Nest, and the stadium is named after it. The "nest scheme" design was the unique design of Beijing National Stadium and it has a deeply meaning then its look (Alex R, 2008). The nest represents breed of life, which is the hope of human being. For Olympic Games, it means the hope of an athlete, a country and even an era of sports. In addition, the appearance has a red bowl shape inside, which was made of concrete (Alex R, 2008). This has another meaning which is from ancient China. From the outside, it is unlike the Roman Colosseum, people cannot recognize the position of entrance, all 12 entrance were hide in the structure to give Bird’s Nest a real nest looking. This is not easy to build, especially when there is a steel structure outside which needs to support.

Conclusion

There is no doubt that Roman Colosseum is the heritage of mankind. It is a symbol of stadium and a rudiment of modern stadium. The structure used in the design, the entrance deign with the use of arches and the multiple levels can all reflect intelligenceand wisdom of Roman people. It gives a reference for modern architectures and brings a model for modern stadium. The Roman Empire time has passed, however, the Roman Colosseum has become more and more noted worldwide, it is still one of the most popular spots in Rome and millions of tourists visit there every year to see the vicissitudes of Roman Empire through the architecture. History leaves mark on it, making it stronger and more resilient. It does not perish or die away. Instead, it becomes more glorious with time.

Bird's Nest is a one of the symbol of modern stadium. The steel structure and Nest appearance showed the beauty of modern technologies. The hide of entrance made the appearance looks like a real nest for birds. The inside a red concrete seating bowlis a symbol of Chinese bowl. The unique design represents the hope of life and the beauty of China. Meanwhile, the steel used for construction is new type of steel, which has a high strength and intensity to support the huge building. The build of Bird's Nest also brings the welding technology to a new level.

The spirit of higher, faster, stronger will continuously spread with the development of modern stadium. After Olympic Games has held in Bird's Nest, it becomes a part of Olympic history. When you read the architecture carefully, you can find the strengths of modern technologies, the spirit of athletics and the fighting of athletes from all over the world.

When comparing the two stadiums, it is difficult to judge or identify which one is better. Both of them are symbols of countries and provided people in certain time a greatest opportunity to display the art of sports. They both have their own beauty in different era and provided indelible memory in the history, which will be remembered by generations of people.

No matter in 2000 years ago or nowadays, stadiums are a critical part of architecture world. From the design of stadiums, people can hear the sounds of history and read the story of that era. Roman Colosseum has become a history of Roman Empire, Bird's Nest will be as well. After another 2000 years, people will still visit those two stadiums, as history is eternally alive. It stays in the architecture, telling their interesting stories to the world.

Probably more fantastic and perfect stadium will be built in the future, with the development of architecture, technology and modern society. It will still have the trace of historical stadium, and becoming the mark of a city even a country, but becoming stronger and has beauty of its own.Every stadium has its own story, no matter Ancient Rome Colosseum or Contemporary Colosseum ‘Bird’s Nest’.

Reference

"Roman Colosseum". http://romancolosseum.org/. 2016

"BBC's History of the Colosseum p. 2". bbc.co.uk. 22 March 2011.

"China's New Faces: Ai Weiwei". BBC News. 3 March 2005.

Roth, Leland M. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning (First ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Demick, Barbara (22 February 2009). "Beijing's Olympic building boom becomes a bust". Los Angeles Times.

"The National Stadium". Competition Venues. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

"Beijing National Stadium, Olympic Green". East Asia. Arup. 2008.

Terence Bell, Beijing's Bird's Nest Stadium, https://www.thebalance.com/beijing-s-bird-s-nest-stadium-2340205, 2012

Keith Hopkins and Mary Beard, The Colosseum (Wonders of the World), Apr 4, 2011

Abby Inglis, Roman Engineering Influenced Our Society in Many Ways, http://stadiumcomparison.blogspot.com, 2013

Alex Richardson. "Beijing says 2 died in Bird's Nest construction". Reuters. 28 January 2008

National Stadium (Bird’s Nest),

http://www.arup.com/projects/chinese_national_stadium, 2015

The colosseum, http://www.the-colosseum.net/architecture/materials_en.htm, 2016

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