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留学生作业代写:The drug problem in the United States

2017-06-13 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The drug problem in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的毒品问题。人们普遍认为,毒品与犯罪行为之间存在着明显的因果关系。相比于监禁,采取治疗无疑是一个更可行的方法,以解决当前犯罪问题所引起的毒瘾。与那些典型的大学毒贩相比,街头毒贩有更高的倾向和动机参与贩毒活动,这也意味着街头毒品交易应得到更密切的监督甚至惩罚。

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With more and more serious drug addiction in the United States, a number of methods have been tried to deal with the War on Drugs, including prohibition, harm reduction, medicalization legalization and regulation as well as decriminalization. When it comes to the state implementation of a harm reduction approach, the prevention and the treatment instead of incarceration are the two major options.

It has been widely accepted that there is an obvious causal relationship between the drug use and the criminal behavior. By taking the approach of treatment, it can be a more viable solution to resolving the current criminal problems caused by drug addiction and this can be supported by a series of examples. In the first place, many states have been playing an active role in implementing the treatment option as a kind of drug policy in the last a few years, supporting the treatment to those criminals rather than incarceration(McBride, D. C., Terry-McElrath, Henrick Harwood, James. A. Inciardi, &Leukefeld, Carl. 79). The Nixon administration can be taken as the leader which adopts this policy at the federal level, with the spreading to a state level then. In addition, the treatment measure is in accordance with the liberal assertions. The United States has been known to be a liberal country entitle the citizens with much freedom and many choices. The incarceration of the criminals related to drug use is obvious against the liberty and freedoms of citizens, while the treatment can be an optional choice to better deal with this social problem. Based on the research results of McBride and his colleges (80), the cost-effective property of treatment also accounts for its appealing advantage when compared to incarceration. Finally, there should be some clarifications and diversion when dealing with the juveniles for marijuana possession (McBride, D. C., Terry-McElrath, Henrick Harwood, James. A. Inciardi, &Leukefeld, Carl. 80).

The purposes and conditions of juvenile substance offenders should be distinguished from those social offenders which can be seriously and negatively influential to the whole society. In this way, the flexibility of treatment can be beneficial to the juveniles in their future lives. While the incarceration may result in some negative consequences for the consideration of their further development. The increasing number of local public health agencies have already been involved in providing treatment services for those drug addicts (McBride, D. C., Terry-McElrath, Henrick Harwood, James. A. Inciardi, &Leukefeld, Carl. 80). As the overwhelming advantages of the treatment have been widely accepted by a number of people when compared to incarceration, it should be aware that the quality of treatment needs to be improved in order to ensure its effectiveness.

According to the beliefs of the criminal justice system, it is believed that those street dealers have a higher tendency and motivations to be involved in the drug dealing activities when compared to those typical college drug dealers, which means street drug deals should be given more close supervision or even penalties. The commonly accepted belief is that people who are non-mobile, outspoken, undiplomatic tough kids from a poor family background are likely become drug dealers easily. However, there are five examples to indicated the motivations of the college drug dealers opposing to the criminal justice. The first one is that many aim to underwrite the costs of personal drug use. According to A.Rafik Mohamed & Erik Fritsvold(114), many college students sell drugs to their fellow students to cover their personal drug use costs. A case of Raoul D. also proves that selling drug can help him to afford personal cost on drugs. Being unaware of further purposes, many college students have become drug dealers, against the impression of criminal justice on motivation of dealing drugs. The second one leads to their willingness to underwrite other incidental and entertainment expenses (A.Rafik Mohamed & Erik Fritsvold 115). From the conversation with Ashcan, the particular motivation to deal drugs can be seen. She deals drugs as a supplementing approach to increase her legitimate income. The income is needed for social activities-related costs in college life. Thirdly, there are also some college students who deal drugs for capital accumulation (A.Rafik Mohamed & Erik Fritsvold 116). Some college students may find dealing drugs profitable, thus they begin to change their original purposes on covering personal costs only. According to a utilitarian- based market analysis, Aschan believes that he can deal drugs to make money easily and quickly. Seeing the profitable market in colleges, he can even expand his drug dealing business and make more profits as soon as possible. Moreover, more students take dealing drugs as an opportunity to practice their business skills in preparation for their employment after graduation. In this sense, it can be seen that this is apparently different from what has been permanently believed by the criminal justice. Then, the fourth example leads to the ego gratification and the pursuit of status for an increasing number of college students. As A.Rafik Mohamed and Erik Fritsvold indicate (118), more college dealers focus on self-expository including ego gratification, popularity, sense of self-importance and old fashioned greed. Instead of coming from poor family backgrounds, they deal drugs not for personal costs but for building a status in college. Finally, running counter to both material or non-material factors to dealing drugs which are supported by criminal justice, some college students deal drugs only to take risks, sneak trills and become a gangsta(A.Rafik Mohamed and Erik Fritsvold indicate119). This is the motivation for a number of rich white college drug dealers. Lacoste is an example who deal drugs aiming to achieve this purpose by challenging the formal positions of authority. Even being caught by the university, he boosts that he will be protected from negative sanctions by the social status of his parents, in accordance with the major motivations for rich white college drug dealers.

References:

McBride, D. C., Terry-McElrath, Henrick Harwood, James. A. Inciardi, &Leukefeld, Carl. (2009). Reflections on drug policy. Journal of Drug Issues, 39(1), 71-88.

A.Rafik Mohamed & Erik Fritsvold. (2006). Damn, it feels good to be a gangsta: the social organization of the illicit drug trade servicing a private college campus. Deviant Behavior, 27:97-125.

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