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美国作业代写:Analysis of Wages

2017-06-10 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Analysis of Wages,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了工资问题。作为社会产品分配的一种手段,工资是人类发展的基础。古典经济学中,有人认为造成工资差异是职业因素,比如工作的难度、工作的稳定性、劳动的责任心、成功的可能性和政策因素。也有人认为,工资取决于劳动者自身的价格和家庭生活的必需品,工资差距是自由竞争、垄断、性别等。

Wages,工资,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

How human survival and development has been an important topic of concern since ancient times, as a means of the social product distribution, wage is the foundation of human development. Its nature and how to determine the criteria naturally becomes one of the important elements when people study economic issues. Whatever it was the classical economics of the 17th century or the neoclassical economics and the modern economics of various economic theories consider the essence, the determination, the different function, the generation and role of wages as the important issues of its study. Economists try to explain the factors which determine wage, so they formed a variety of wage decision theory, and organized a comparative analysis of various wage determination theory, it is undoubted for some enterprises to explore and improve the wage determination mechanism with a high reference value. Today's enterprise's salary management not only relates to the vital interests of the employees but also to the realization of the whole enterprise's goal. Therefore, how to design a reasonable and competitive salary system according to the enterprises own characteristics from the enterprise's strategic goal so as to attract and retain talent, motivate staff, improve work efficiency, and ultimately achieve short-term and long-term business goals. This is the business managers have been concerned about in business activities; it is also an important management activity. Pay system design is good or bad sometimes directly related to the success and failure of the enterprise.

This paper summarizes several typical wage theories in classical, modern and modern economics. This is not a theory that refutes another theory. It analyzes the reasons for the gap of the wage in the society in order to draw an integration of practical guidance to the idea.

Classical economics, Adam Smith believed that wage labor • currency price, cause wage variance is occupational factors (the degree of difficulty of work, work and study the degree of difficulty, job stability, work accountability, working likelihood of success ) and policy factors (restricting labor competition and limiting labor mobility). Ricardo argued that the natural price of labor depended on the price of the laborers themselves and on the necessities of family life. The market price of labor is the price actually paid to the labor by the supply and demand of the labor market, and the natural price of labor has historical differences and regional differences. The theory of wage funds from Muller thought that the total wage fund decided by the total capital labor and other capital ratio, the level of wages, the total amount of funds and by the number of labor, the wage gap is due to free competition, monopoly, gender and so on.

In modern economics, Clark proposed the marginal productivity distribution theory, the wage level is determined by the output of the last unit of labor, in the absence of economic friction, the industry wage is not different, and the existence of various economic friction determines the wage fluctuations. Marshall analyzed the wage decision process by the analysis method of the equilibrium .The equilibrium wage is determined by the supply and demand of the labor market. The change of the commodity market, the working condition, the workability and the social habit influence the wage gap. In collective bargaining wage theory, he has emphased the importance of the trade union organizations to wages. The trade unions and employers' associations determine the wage range through collective bargaining. The reasons for the wage gap is that  the workers' ignorance, career conversion costs, external forces.

In the case of constant capital, in the process of increasing labor, the average distribution of production tools and raw materials per unit of laborers is reduced, the supply of technology is deteriorating, and the quantity of products produced by one unit of labor increases must be less than the previous unit of labor produced by the number of products, which is the law of diminishing marginal productivity of labor. The figure below gives a description of this law, assuming that capital is fixed, the abscissa means the labor input, the vertical axis means the unit of labor output. Now use the AiBi line to express the labor produced by the first unit with the aid of a certain capital, use the A2B: line to express the increase in the output of the second unit of labor, and so on, the increase in the output of the last unit of labor is represented by the AsBs line.

In modern economics, Schultz and Becker put forward the theory of human capital, they believe that human capital can be obtained through education and training, the size of the human capital stock determines the level of wages, human capital investment in labor efficiency and "compensation Effect "led to wage differentials. In the case of labor market segmentation, the labor force between the market can not be normal flow, different labor market wage determination mechanism is different, each market has independent market characteristics, different market operation mechanism, wage difference also exists. The efficiency of wage theory argues that companies are willing to pay higher than the equilibrium level of wages in order to improve efficiency, prevent the slow down, reduce the work rate. Due to different labor costs, training costs, the demand for talent, business management model, resulting in a wage gap. Weizman's "sharing theory" persits that the wage system should be related to the operating conditions of the enterprise pay system, the main difference between the wages of workers because the difference of shareing wage .

The wage theory of Marxism thinks that wages are the monetary value of labor performance, wages are influenced by the supply, the demand and the impact of competition of the labor market, the labor value will fluctuate as the center, the wage difference is due to differences in labor value and labor exploitation. According to the applicability, openness, explanatory power of the theory, Marxist wage theory can become the theoretical basis for the analysis of wage gap in the industry.

Along the Marxist analysis of the wage theory, the industry wage decision is divided into two parts: labor value factors and labor market factors, the former is the determining factor, which is the influencing factor. Firstly, the value of the means of subsistence of the labor force itself determines the wage of the industry. With the development of social production and the progress of science and technology, the labor productivity of all trades and professions has been improved to varying degrees. The same is true in the sectors of production and daily life. The working time of production and living materials is shortened in varying degrees, The unit value of the various subsistence also declined, but this does not mean that the value of labor force industry also declined. Because the labor value is the sum of the various means of subsistence, rather than the unit value of the means of subsistence, when an industry's labor intensity becomes large, the labor environment is poor, increasing the physiological and spiritual tension and pain, the labor required to compensate for the labor cost of the sum of the means of subsistence is bound to increase, the wage level is bound to be high. Therefore, the size of the wage industry should be decided by the total value of the means of subsistence of industry itself necessary. Besides, the total value of the industry is associated with the labor intensity, labor characteristics and the labor environment. Secondly, the industry's decision is decided by the family members of the labor force and the value of their children. Determining the value of the labor force is also the sum of the family members' value from the industry rather than the unit value of the means of subsistence. The sum of the value of means of subsistence is related to the number of family members of the labor force in the sector. The more the number of family members are, the more the means of subsistence are required. The number of family members is related to the infant's birth rate, life expectancy and welfare status. Thirdly, education and training costs are decided by the industry wage. Labor must have a certain labor capacity and labor skills in the labor process, different industries have different specific labor, labor skills, the labor force must go through a certain period of education and training before participate in a certain industry.

Labor market changes can affect wages, labor demand (changes in production technology, domestic product markets and international product markets) can lead to changes in wages, labor supply can lead wage changes in the opposite direction and labor market failure (labor market segmentation, monopolization of product markets, externalities of human capital and asymmetric information in the labor market) are uncertain about the direction of wage change.

In summary, the factors that affect the wage gap are mainly the two aspects of labor value and market. Wage difference is also a common phenomenon in society. We should take measures to minimize the wage gap rather than allow it to develop.

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