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留学生作业代写:The Poor Need Cheap Fossil Fuels

2017-06-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

本文是一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The Poor Need Cheap Fossil Fuels,供大家赏析学习,这篇论文讨论了穷人对燃料的使用问题。如今,世界上数以百万计的穷人依旧使用化石燃料做饭和供暖,因为他们大多没有办法使用电。而由于呼吸污染的空气,他们的健康严重受到威胁。此外,燃烧化石燃料还会导致气候变暖,加剧环境污染。然而,他们别无选择,他们只能负担得起的这种能源。所以富裕的国家应该投资于清洁能源技术的研究和开发,以确保绿色能源最终以低廉的价格让大家接受。

Fossil Fuels,燃料,留学生作业代写,paper代写,澳洲代写


Millions of poor people of the world are facing a severe problem: they cook and heat their home by burning fuels because most of these people have no access to electricity. As a result of breathing polluted air, they died prematurely each year in terms of investigation of the World Health Organization. Besides, burning fossil fuels cause warmer climate which aggravating environmental pollution. However, they have no choice but to use this kind of energy source which they can afford and by only doing so, they could have the opportunity to develop country and improve lives.

This essay will firstly discuss the Porter Hypothesis, which was proposed by Michael Porter, that strict environmental regulations can attract more investment in new products and encourage innovations that help improve commercial competitiveness. The Body Shop as an example will be showed. Following this, it will discuss the responsibility among nations that all the human beings should unite as one. Lastly, a relevant case of a rural area in China will be analyzed that its approach to develop goes against the original intention and the strategy of sustainable development.

Critical analysis

With the regard to the achievement of today’s developed countries, they sacrificed the environment for developing the industries by using fossil fuels hundreds years ago. The most typical example was the city of London. Similarly, nowadays, some poor countries want to catch the opportunities to enrich their countries by burning fuels because what they have owned and they can afford is energy source – coal. This is one of views of the author, Bjorn Lomborg. It is right. But it isn’t totally right. Development is not necessarily at the expense of the environment.

Traditionally, if the environment project was stipulated more harshly, companies have to take actions to reduce emission and production or shift to a cleaner technology as well as mode of production in order to be accordance with the rules. These actions seems either increase costs or decrease profits. This is the reason why most of the economists supposed that the protection of environment will hinder economic growth.

However, it was challenged by Michael Porter. The Porter Hypothesis(Thomas Roediger-Schluga, 2004) proposed: “appropriately designed environmental standards can lure innovation that may partly or almost fully counteract the costs of according with them. Such ‘innovation offsets,’ can not only lower the net cost of meeting environmental ordination, but can even result in absolute advantages over firms in foreign countries. Innovation offsets will be common because reducing pollution is often compliance with improving the productivity with which resources are used(Bjorn Lomborg, 2009). The following chart will show: strict but flexible environmental regulations will urge innovation. Subsequently, it creates the following benefits of environmental and business performance. It also tells the protection of environment will not hinder economic growth but boosts it.

Take a brand as an example. The Body Shop International plc is a successful and well established cooperation skincare retailer. It objects to use animals in testing cosmetics, has great passion in community projects, and particularly well known for its involvement in environmental career. The Body Shop’s products are totally natural.  Also, the package of the products is always simple and less waste by using biodegradable materials. Therefore, the cost is low and the price is reasonable. It becomes more and more popular not only in England but also in the world(Miriam Mennen, 2013).

There is no doubt that people couldn’t leave fossil fuels in daily life. And exactly, they need cheaper fossil fuels as well. The article has concerned that wealthy western countries should approach to investments into research and development in clean energy technologies to ensure that green energy ultimately at a low price that everyone can afford it without standing against poorer nations as using fuels. But one point is wrong. Why just only wealthier countries do the research? This leads to a problem of responsibility for the earth. Not only should the developed countries concern the environment but also the developing countries. They are also one of the parts of the world. It is not fair that wealthy nations engage in researching technologies but let poorer nations burn fuels. All the human beings in this world should be together and do the big deal.

China was taken as an example moving 680 million people out of poverty offering them modern energy but it is not to say that she never care about environment. Actually, compared with other developed countries, especially poorer ones, China has its economic base to deal with the following environmental problems and she has a certain ability to explore the approach.

However, poorer nations have no such foundation. Meanwhile, their people are not well-educated. As the result, their environmental awareness is so weak that they may not know how to cope with the subsequent issues they had done for developing the economy. Rural area of xingtai city in China is a relevant example (Eduard B. Vermeer、 Frank N. Pieke, 1997). Recent years, according to the survey, the number of township enterprises has been up to 38,800. They prompt the growth of economy led to a huge increase in emission of waste water, waste gas and solid waste. Currently, the emission of industrial pollutant of rural area account for around 50% of xingtai. The primary reason is that the consciousness of environmental protection is superficial. The aim of developing the economy is to improve people’s living standards. But, people’s lives are influenced due to the environmental pollution in the process of development which must go against the original intention of development. What’s worse; there will not investment in the polluted area any more. Sustainable development (SD) is a mode of resource utilize, which is in order to cater human needs while keep the environment well so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for the coming generations. The place that people live in also belongs to the one the further generations. The environment has been polluted which seriously, will never be remedied. It is a kind of crime for the generations. Therefore, although the nation had earned some money at the price of polluting environment, more money may be used for filling up the huge vacancy. Perhaps, most of the nations are one generation rich only.

All in all, for the sake of helping the environment, the poor should limit the use of fossil fuels while the wealth should research new green energy. This is not to say that the development of the poor nations would be narrowed. In fact, they could have changed the mode of using energy source through learning the new technologies from the other country. What’s more, wise man will never make repeating mistake. The poor should take history as mirror. The bad history of polluting environment by developed country would not be ignored. The poor have to keep a clear mind to think about the result of burning fossil fuels to build their countries. If do so, the burden of environmental management would be heavier and who knows it whether a progress or retrogress. Economic development must follow the requirement of natural law—protect the environment. If the natural environment is destroyed severely, human beings would not escape from the punishment of nature. Again, London, as a famous city with an unforgettable history, suffered a lot in the past several years. In December, 1952, there were up to 4000 people died of severe air pollution in London(Julian Hunt, 2005).It cost more than 50 years, from the early 19th century to the mid-20thcentury, to solve its air pollution. The huge expenses may not be affordable to poor nations.


In conclusion, “pollute first and manage later” is not the only way of developing. Strict but inflexible environmental regulation which could stimulate innovation and development gradually is a good choice and can be used for reference by poor nations. Then, before developing, national conditions should be considered in advance whether the approach is suitable for the nation or not. In other words, all the aspects should be considered comprehensively. What’s more, the original purpose of developing- improving people’s living standard ought to be kept in mind. Otherwise, it will be a kind of retrogress. Although the energy source is a part of necessity, the environment could not be ignored which is the thing people live by and the future as well. Therefore, clean and cheap energy is needed. Regarding who should take charge of researching, it is a problem about responsibility for the earth. All the nations should do their duties: limit consuming natural resources, learn technological information from each other and pursuit joint development.


Bjorn Lomborg, 2013,the Poor Need Cheap Fossil Fuels. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/04/opinion/the-poor-need-cheap-fossil-fuels.html

Bjorn Lomborg, 2009,Global Crises, Global Solutions: Costs and Benefits

Eduard B. Vermeer、 Frank N. Pieke, 1997, Cooperative and Collective in China's Rural Development: Between State and Private Interests

Julian Hunt, 2005, London's Environment: Prospects for a Sustainable World City

Miriam Mennen, 2013, The Body Shop

Thomas Roediger-Schluga, 2004, The Porter Hypothesis and the Economic Consequences of Environmental Regulation: A Neo-Schumpeterian Approach


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