2017-01-12 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文
Lack of coordination on economic and social development, particularly social development lags behind the problem, people are accustomed to criticism of bias as the backwardness of economic development, and thus questioned the economic development objectives of the misconduct, and human reflect on economic development, but it seems reluctant to reflect on their own consumer behavior. Suffered economic development has been criticized, in fact, rooted in economic development objectives misconduct irrational social needs, and social needs of the non-rational society rooted in the absence of demand-driven mechanism, which is essentially passive rational society as a whole does not act, conniving Individual irrational demand for economic development misleading.
First, the absence of social demand-oriented mechanism to mislead the goal of sustained economic development
The fundamental goal of economic activity or the ultimate goal is to meet society's consumer demand, consumer demand for both substances, including spiritual and cultural consumption. Only to meet social needs, economic activity was only proved to be co-purposeful activity, only to meet consumer demand for social, economic activity was obtained from the social value of compensation and in-kind replacement, but also will prove to be the activities of regularity. Therefore, economic activity must accept the provisions of the needs of society, or not be able to continue, is not worth going. Visible and sustained economic development and social needs are closely related to the needs of the community association epitomized the guiding role in economic development, namely economic development, social needs required a reasonable target. However, the social demand guiding role in economic development, in particular the needs of society by providing economic development goals to guide sustainable economic development is conditional, that is, the whole of human rationality as the leading establishment of mechanisms for demand-oriented society.
In the planned economy system, China's production and consumption activities are arranged by the national plan, the lack of change in the interaction between the two rigid program management has also been blocked, consumer demand for the production of the guiding role of being concealed. Since reform and opening, China's initially established a socialist market economic system, a variety of economic relations through the market quickly and effectively link up, which for the consumer guide production, demand to create the conditions for incentive provision. However, China's current social needs-oriented mechanism does not really set up. Prominent features are: first, the social consumption demand is still characterized by the individual consumer demand, lack of guidance and society as a whole rational norms, often with a non-rational characteristics, Professor Li Yining in the "Ethical Issues in Economics," a book cited six kinds of consumer behavior contrary to social norms, including the extravagant consumption, stingy, thrifty, precocious consumption, conspicuous consumption, and consumer Vulgar, etc.  136-153 these to the individual consumer awareness and behavior from society heterozygous Consumer needs are often irrational. Second, the individual consumer awareness and behavior is decentralized, mutual interference, it is difficult to form a clear and consistent social consumption demand signal, vague instructions on economic development, on economic activity disturbance, guiding role is weakened. In effect, uneven economic structure, it is difficult to form the structure and industrial advantages, restricting economic development to improve the quality. Third, individuals tend to spend more immediate concerns while ignoring long-term interests, local interests while ignoring more attention to the overall interests are more concerned about their own interests while ignoring the interests of society, and thus tend to meet their individual consumption of consumer demand as power consumption, compared with less consider this individual consumer behavior on others, society and the fundamental interests of their own long-term interests. Fourth, the individual consumer demand is unstable, the individual consumer demand not only by religion, culture, education, customs, consumer ideas and other "inert" factors, so that the individual consumer needs to maintain a certain stability, while individual consumer demand Also vulnerable to consumer psychology, such as comparisons of psychological, mental sport, fashion, psychology and other "active" factors, so that the individual changes in consumer demand informality, elusive. With the growing wealth of the modern market supply and consumer culture, and the ever-changing consumer psychology, consumer demand affecting the activity of individual factors over the role of inert factors that lead to consumer demand instability become more apparent.
Oriented economic development and social needs are closely related. Marx said: "luxury is the opposite of natural necessity. Necessary natural needs is itself the subject of the kind attributed to individual needs. Production development both abandon this natural necessity, but also abandoning the kind of luxury.}.} A7 zo Therefore, the absence of social needs-oriented mechanism to mislead goal of economic development, and thus have a serious constraint to sustainable economic development. individual irrational consumption, especially excessive consumption caused by economic expansion, increasing population, resources and environment tensions, weakening sustainable economic development capacity; scattered individual consumer demand characteristics, so difficult to unify economic development objectives, a clear, mutual interference of economic activity, internal friction, reducing the effectiveness of economic development; individual consumer demand for the development of the instability of the economy face greater uncertainty nature, take more risks, economic development, lack of a stable market environment.
Second, the social needs of the constituent elements of the guide mechanism
Needs of the community-oriented mechanism resulting in the absence of a variety of factors that influence consumer demand is difficult to form a cohesive force, consumer demand is difficult to society as a whole in the form of a rational consumer demand in favor of individual irrational consumer demand. "Consumption is a virtuous cycle of economic hub or poor circulatory point", ['] "Therefore, if consumer demand towards a rational from the irrational, the individual consumer demand toward social consumption demand factors must be integrated to a variety of consumer, the formation of social demand-oriented mechanisms to rational factors bind irrational factors, scattered, mutual interference, unstable individual consumer behavior integrated into rational, science, health, social consumer behavior, so that the goal of economic development more clearly, science, reasonable guide to achieve sustained economic development.
Social demand-oriented mechanism consists of three elements, namely consumption concept, the consumption structure and consumption demand (Figure 1) a
First, the concept of consumption, ie consumption concept, is that people held under certain historical conditions to treat some of the fundamental principles of consumer and concepts, such as the Chinese people's long-held consumer frugality is a traditional concept of consumption, and in recent years from excessive consumption abroad, loan or overdraft consumer spending is a new concept of consumption. Factors affecting consumer concept is mostly philosophical level of cognitive science and cognitive concepts, such as the ecological civilization, consumer culture, consumer ethics. Concept of consumption should be generally recognized and accepted social scientific, civilized and rational consumer principles and concepts, but also society as a whole embodies the rational consumption.
Second, the consumption structure. Consumption structure refers to the composition of consumption structure of an object that can be used a variety of consumer proportional relationship between the objects represented. According to the different main consumer, consumption structure and consumption structure can be divided into individual consumption structure of society. (A) ioa social consumption structure and consumption structure of individual factors vary, their formation, evolution, changes in the law there are certain differences. In contrast, the consumption structure of society greatly influenced by macroeconomic factors, such as consumer culture, consumption concept, the production structure, showing a significant ethnic, regional, stability and other characteristics; while individual consumption structure is often subject to consumer psychology activity factors, showed hyperactivity, personalization features.
Third, the consumer demand. Consumer demand is the consumer purchasing power in certain conditions, consumer desires. Broad consumer demand is the consumer's desire, may refer to the ability to buy - that is being met through the purchase of real desire for consumption, can also refer to the propensity to consume or consumption of pure imagination, but this consumer purchasing power due to lack of imagination support , which is unrealistic, but conditions improved in the purchasing power of the consumer imagination could be transformed into reality consumer demand. Purchasing power due to the conditions of constraint, the reality must have a clear consumer demand and consumer spending targeting quantity limits. Consumer demand and the limited nature of the target point is an important feature.
Consumer-oriented mechanism concept in the social demand the highest level of living, social concentrated reflection of overall consumer rationality, reflecting the consumption of a given period of civilization, society has an important consumer guide, demonstration and regulations made available, resulting in a relatively stable period of time consumption structure. Consumption structure formation and stability of the carrier of social consumption concept, the reaction and the scientific concept of consumption refraction and rationality level.Concept of consumption on the consumer's choice of target more indirect, and its mode of action and the effect is not stable. Of course, the concept of consumption of individual consumer demand, there are two direct impact on the way. First, the concept of consumption direct guidance and constraints individual consumer demand, which depends on consumer self-awareness and acceptance of the concept.
Second, the state and society through non-market means the direct consumption concept
Internalized into individual consumer demand, the common approach is mandatory spending, such as government primary and secondary schools to improve physical fitness, unified way to educate executive order to impose the "breakfast milk" consumption.
With the concept of consumption and the effect of the mode of action compared to the consumption structure for a more direct impact on consumer demand, the effect is more pronounced because of the consumption structure of social groups is the concentrated reflection of consumer demand, but also after long-term formation of consumer groups, consumer behavior The objective results, and thus individual consumers have a direct role in guiding consumer choice. Consumers are often subject to individual consumer behavior consumer psychology herd effect, making the consumer behavior and habits of others for their own consumption choices have a demonstration effect, once the herd consumption, consumption habits will be the way to the individual consumer behavior of individuals to be cured.
Of course, consumer demand will turn on the consumption structure and consumption concept formation and development of the role of the interaction between the three correlation is strong. However, the mechanism of view, consumption concept reflects consumer civilization, and guide rational consumption behavior of social groups to form a stable structure of consumption, on this basis, through the consumption of consumer behavior and psychological factors that affect the role of the individual, and further guide the individual consumer choice. Such collective action from concept to individual action and then to make a rational social consumer demand been consistently so scattered, mutual interference, unstable individual consumption tends to be scientific, rational, stable, so that the goal of social consumer demand clear and consistent, which needs of the community-oriented mechanism is an entire logical system. The establishment of mechanisms for internal logic of strict economic development aimed to send a clear signal that economic development must meet the needs of society as a rational target for economic development but also to pursue improper draw the red line development goals.
Third, the social demand-oriented mechanism to sustained economic development objectives rational
Needs of the community-oriented mechanism aims to ensure that the needs of society rational, in order to achieve sustained economic development goals correct guidance. Therefore, the role of social needs-oriented mechanism can be broken down as follows: ensuring social consumer demand reflects a rational society as a whole, that promote scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate social consumption demand; possible to eliminate the individual consumer attitudes and consumer behavior dispersion, mutual interference, rational consumer demand to achieve social goals clear and uniform; economic activity to send a clear social demand signals to guide economic development to establish a scientific and reasonable goals.
First, the consumption concept to guide social consumer demand reflects a rational society as a whole, thereby protecting the rational goal of sustained economic development. Reflect society as a whole concept of rational social spending should have at least four characteristics, namely, scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate. The scientific concept of consumption is the consumption behavior to follow the laws of science. Scientific concept of consumption is the cornerstone of rational consumption concept. Consumption concept of civilization, referring to consumer concept of ecological civilization, economic ethics, economic philosophy and other important carrier of scientific epistemology is about people, people and society, man and nature, as well as "a social an economic nature" and other major relationship cognitive outcomes concentrated reflection. Rational consumption concept of civilization is the highest form of consumption concept. Healthy consumption concept refers to people's consumption behavior must be to improve the quality of human survival and development as the goal, that is, people want to live a healthy and dignified. Healthy consumption concept is the fundamental concept of rational consumption purport, is to determine whether a rational consumption concept fundamental criteria. Moderate consumption concept of social consumer behavior is controlled in the appropriate limits. Put forward the concept of moderate consumption of traditional consumption concept presents challenges, namely excessive human consumption is harmful for human consumption and behavior is irrational desires should converge or prohibited. Can be summed up in one sentence: human rights do not have unlimited spending. Scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate consumption concept will ensure that the needs of society remain rational state, so that economic development to establish rational goals.
Second, the consumption structure to guide scattered individual propensity to consume propensity to consume unified into society as a whole, economic development, and thus convey to clear and consistent signals to guide the sustainable economic development to establish rational goals. Practice has proved that the consumption structure by consumer culture, consumer fashion, consumer spending trends and other established standards and consumption patterns, and guide consumers to imitate behavior; either through competition, herding, sporting and other consumer psychology, prompting consumers herd consumption; or through Consumer reaction production, consumption structure triggered - production structure adjustment, thereby forcing consumers not established mandatory consumption targets consumer choice, and that the market does not provide the supply to meet consumer other consumer choices.